To investigate the criminal conduct of all institutions, organizations, and individuals involved in the persecution of Falun Gong; to bring such investigations, no matter how long it takes, no matter how far and deep we have to search, to full closure; to exercise fundamental principles of humanity; and to restore and uphold justice in society.

WOIPFG's Report on the Crime of Live Organ Harvesting in China - Chapter 9

August 3, 2016
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Chapter 9: A State Crime: Ordered by Jiang, and Carried Out by the Military

 

Ample evidence points to a startling fact: these incidents of organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners are not isolated, localized and incidental murders. There are four distinct evidentiary trails that lead us to conclude that Jiang Zemin directly ordered the organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners and gave the army the lead role in carrying out the task. The many state apparatuses—the Armed Police, the Political and Legal Affairs Commission, the Public Security Bureau, the Procuratorate, the Courts, the Judiciary, and medical facilities across the country that practice organ transplants—have been complicit in these crimes. The evidence also touches on how harvesting has been commercialized, allowing the network of military hospitals and armed police hospitals to share in financial profits. These atrocities began in the year 2000 and continue today.

I. Four types of evidence showing Jiang Zemin Personally Issued the Order


Starting from March 9, 2006, WOIPFG initiated an investigation into organ harvesting centers inside the communist party’s judicial system, army and armed police, in 31 provinces and autonomous regions. We released 60 phone conversations for which complete audio recordings are available, all of which are standalone, direct evidence and can be downloaded, and 1,628 pieces of materials from a long list of officials, doctors and transplant brokers. These include:

  • Members of the standing committee of the Politburo
  • Vice chairman of the CCP’s Central Military Commission
  • A Central Military Commission member and former defense minister
  • Minister of Health of the General Logistics Department of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA)
  • Central and local political and legislative committees and officials at 610 offices
  • Armed police
  • Military hospitals
  • Staff in Red Cross Organ Donation Offices
  • Doctors in transplant departments
  • Transplant brokers

Evidentiary line 1: Four persons admitted that Jiang Zemin directly gave the order to extract organs from Falun Gong practitioners for transplant operations.[1]

1) Investigation recording from Bai Shuzhong, Former Minister of Health for the Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) General Logistics Department. (Download link: MP3)

Investigator: “When you were the head of the health division for the PLA General Logistics Department, regarding taking organs from detained Falun Gong people for organ transplantation, was it an order from Wang Ke, the then-director of the PLA General Logistics Department? Or did it directly come from the Central Military Commission?”

Bai: “Back then it was Chairman Jiang. There was an order, a sort of instruction, which said to carry out such things, organ transplantation. That is to say, it was not just the military that was doing kidney transplants.”

Investigator: “We also obtained some intelligence, that is to say back then, the Joint Logistics Departments of the Military Regions had detained a number of Falun Gong people as live donors, is that true?”

Bai: “This, this is back then, ah, I think, at least this is how I remembered, because back then after Chairman Jiang issued the order, we all did a lot of work against the Falun Gong practitioners. Because Jiang paid a lot of attention to this matter back then, and put a lot of emphasis on this matter.”

This is an excerpt of the transcript of the recording from WOIPFG’s investigation of Bai Shuzhong on September 30, 2014. As the highest level administrative leader of one of the organizations that carries out organ harvesting operations, Bai played a key role in transmitting Jiang’s order to slaughter Falun Gong practitioners. His term of office was between 1998 and 2004, which coincides with the time period when the persecution of Falun Gong and organ harvesting were at their worst. In the recording, Bai clearly states that Jiang gave a direct order to harvest organs from Falun Gong practitioners for transplant, and that there are multiple state apparatuses beside the military that are involved in organ harvesting.

This piece of evidence affirms the weight of evidence WOIPFG has acquired from the military, armed police, regional government organizations, and the judiciary and legal systems that all of these organizations are complicit in the crimes of organ harvesting. It also expounds the reasons behind this situation and verifies the judgment WOIPFG has made based on the collected evidence.

2) Investigation recording from Bo Xilai, then-minister of commerce. (Download link: MP3)

First Secretary: “That is, when you were the governor of Liaoning Province, …that is to say, regarding the matter of live organ harvesting of Falun Gong (practitioners), was that your order or Jiang Zemin’s order?”

Bo: “President Jiang’s!”

3) Investigation recording from Tan Yunshan, chief physician from the Liver Pathological Department at the Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. (Recording Download:MP3,Transcription:Appendix 19)

On February 8, 2015, a WOIPFG investigator called Tan Yunshan.

Investigator: "Do you know that Bai Shuzhong, the former Minister of Health of PLA General Logistics Department, has confessed that Jiang Zemin issued the order to harvest organs from living Falun Gong practitioners for transplants? So is every hospital doing surgeries under that policy?"

Tan Yunshan: "Yes, that’s right."

4) Investigation recording from Dr. Gong of the second ward of the Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of the Affiliated Tongji Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology

On October 12, 2015, Dr. Gong of the second ward of the Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of the Affiliated Tongji Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology spoke to a WOIPFG investigator on the phone. Gong acknowledged using Falun Gong practitioners as donors for organ transplants, and that this was following Jiang Zemin's Order.

(Recording Download: MP3,Transcription: Appendix 23)

Investigator: “Oh, you mean organs from Falun Gong practitioners?”
Dr. Gong: “Yes, now we are no longer allowed to use organs from donors not claimed by any family members.”
Investigator: “Oh, so all along it’s them who have done [organ harvesting]? In the past, many hospitals were involved in [organ harvesting], in massive quantities. It was allowed at the time. It was an order from Jiang Zemin. He was the chairman back then.”
Dr. Gong: “Well, you would need written documents issued by the state to perform things of that nature [organ harvesting].”
Investigator: “Right, right, Jiang Zemin gave orders to use imprisoned Falun Gong practitioners for organ harvesting. Since Jiang Zemin issued such orders, you dared to perform [organ harvesting], right?”
Dr. Gong: “Of course.”

Evidentiary line 2: High-level CCP officials knew about the crime of live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners[2]

WOIPFG’s investigations of five members of the Standing Committee of the Politburo, the vice chairman of the CCP’s Central Military Commission, a member of the Central Military Commission, and the former defense minister further confirm: Jiang Zemin issued the order to harvest organs from Falun Gong practitioners; Zhou Yongkang is directly involved in implementing the policy of organ harvesting; the PLA General Logistic Department is the core agency responsible for organ harvesting; and high level CCP officials are well aware of organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners.

1) Zhang Gaoli, current Member of Politburo Standing Committee

On June 24, 2015, while Zhang Gaoli was on an official visit to Kazakhstan, a WOIPFG investigator, disguised as a secretary working for Jiang, phoned Zhang Gaoli[3]. When asked about Falun Gong practitioners filing lawsuits against Jiang Zemin for harvesting organs from millions of practitioners, Zhang did not deny the allegation at all. Instead, Zhang eagerly promised,“I will definitely … prevent this matter from being pursued at the Politburo’s meeting.” (Recording Download: MP3)

2)Zhang Dejiang, Member of Politburo Standing Committee, Director of the NPC Standing Committee

On June 15, 2015, while Zhang Dejiang was on an official visit to India, a WOIPFG investigator called Zhang Dejiang in the name of secretary Liu working for Jiang Zemin. When Zhang was asked, “Comrade Jiang Zemin wanted to know, if Zhou Yongkang had confessed to the fact that Jiang Zemin made the decision of harvesting organs from imprisoned Falun Gong practitioners?” Zhang did not deny the allegation, and answered, “Can we talk after I am back in China? Okay?” “I am currently abroad, it is inconvenient to talk over the cell phone.”[4](Recording Download: MP3.)

3) Li Changchun, Member of Politburo Standing Committee

On April 17, 2012, during an undercover phone call with Li Changchun, a WOIPFG investigator said to Li, “While you are away, and Jia Qinglin is away, they want to convict Bo Xilai using his involvement in murdering and removing organs from Falun Gong practitioners.” Li answered, “Zhou Yongkang is in charge of this specifically. He knows it.[5]”(Recording Download: MP3)

4) Liang Guanglie, Former Minister of National Defense, Member of Central Military Commission

A telephone investigation took place during Liang Guanglie’s trip to the U.S. from May 4 to May 10, 2012. Liang admitted to a WOIPFG investigator that the Central Military Commission had held meetings to discuss issues about Falun Gong practitioners detained by the military and the military hospitals involved in harvesting their organs. Liang suggested that it was the General Logistics Department that should be contacted to collect related information rather than him[6]. (Recording Download:MP3)

5) Guo Boxiong, Former member of the Politburo, Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission 

During Guo Boxiong’s visit to Central America from October 23 to November 4 in 2011, a WOIPFG investigator had a phone conversation with Guo. Guo did not deny the existence of “live organ harvesting from imprisoned or detained Falun Gong practitioners for transplant operations,” but emphasized that further discussion should be conducted “through a secure telephone.”[7] (Recording Download: MP3)

6) Zeng Qinghong, former member of the Politburo Standing Committee

On August 8, 2007, Zeng Qinghong attended the 60th Anniversary Celebration of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. A WOIPFG investigator was able to reach him by phone in his hotel room. During the phone conversation, Zeng did not deny the statement that “the military participated in live organ harvesting from detained Falun Gong practitioners,” but emphasized that the caller who pretended to be working for another high-ranking official needed to collect information “through normal channels on your side.”[8] (Recording Download:MP3)

7) Zhou Yongkang, former member of the Politburo Standing Committee, director of the Political and Legal Affairs Commission

On May 29, 2008, a WOIPFG investigator, disguised as “Li Chuncheng, Secretary of the Communist Party Committee of Sichuan Province,” talked to Zhou Yongkang. Zhou did not deny the statement that Falun Gong practitioners are being held at facilities such as combat readiness warehouses and bomb shelters, but emphasized that this matter can only be discussed through secure phones.[9] (Recording Download: MP3)

(Transcripts and MP3 downloads of Evidence 2 through 5 can be found at the following links, except the latest evidence from Zhang Dejiang):

Chinese: http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/node/46728
English:
http://www.upholdjustice.org/node/241

Evidentiary line 3: Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission (PLAC) and the 610 System are directly involved in the organ harvesting crimes

High-ranking officials of the Political and Legal Affairs Commission further confirmed the crimes specified above:

1) Zhou Benshun, Former Secretary-General of Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission

In November 2008, Zhou Benshun, the then secretary-general of the Central PLAC, accompanied Zhou Yongkang, the director of the Central PLAC, on a visit to Australia. A WOIPFG investigator disguising himself as Yang Hui, Head of the Second Department of PLA General Staff Headquarters, collected testimony from Zhou Benshun. Zhou admitted, “Such things as live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners in our country, it does exist in our country.”

Zhou Benshun was the vice secretary-general and later secretary-general of the Central PLAC from 2014 to 2013. Ultimately, he was one of the high-level officials and organizers involved in the implementation of harvesting organs from Falun Gong practitioners.[10](Recording Download: MP3)

2) Wei Jianrong, Former vice director of Central PLAC Office

On September 26, 2008, former vice director of the Central PLAC Office Wei Jianrong admitted that live organ harvesting from detained Falun Gong practitioners “started a long time ago.”[11]

(Recording Download: MP3.)

3) Tang Junjie, former Deputy Secretary of PLAC in Liaoning Province

Liaoning Province was suspected to be the very first province involved in large-scale live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners. On April 13, 2012, when the former Deputy Secretary of PLAC in Liaoning Province Tang Junjie was asked, “What kind of directions or commands did Bo Xilai give regarding removing organs from Falun Gong practitioners?” Tang answered, “I was asked to be in charge of this task. Party central is actually paying close attention to this.”[12] (Recording Download:MP3)

4) Secretary Yu working for Luo Gan, Former Member of the Politburo

When the CCP started the persecution of Falun Gong, Luo Gan was the director of Central PLAC. On October 28, 2006, Luo Gan’s secretary Mr. Yu said, “It’s not easy for me to explain it to you clearly in a short conversation.” He then asked the disguised investigator to call him from a secure phone.[13]

(Recording Download: MP3)

5) A PLAC official surnamed Li

From September 16 to 26, 2008, a phone conversation took place between a PLAC official in Beijing surnamed Li and a WOIPFG investigator:

Investigator: “We would like to find out who among the Central PLAC staff know about this state secret?”

Li: “Which state secret?”

Investigator: “Regarding harvesting organs from living and detained Falun Gong practitioners, who among the Central PLAC staff know about this secret?”

Li: “Officials above the department level know this secret.”[14]

(Recording Download: MP3)

6) Director of the 610 Office in Ji County, Tianjin

Director of the 610 Office in Ji County, Tianjin, admitted to a WOIPFG investigator that the human corpses sold by Bo Xilai’s wife Gu Kailai “were not just limited to corpses of Falun Gong practitioners.”[15]

(Recording Download: MP3)

7) Sun Guangtian, deputy mayor of Dalian, former director of the Public Security Bureau in Dalian

On September 18, 2012, a WOIPFG investigator disguised himself as the secretary of Xia Deren, who is the deputy secretary of CCP Committee of Liaoning Province, in order to collect testimony from Sun Guangtian, the director of the Public Security Bureau of Dalian from 2000 to 2003. They talked about Bo Xilai and his wife’s involvement in selling Falun Gong practitioners’ corpses.[16]

(Recording Download: MP3)

Evidentiary line 4: Systematic involvement of the military, police, the judiciary and legal systems and hospitals across China in live organ harvesting[17]

The evidence includes but is not limited to:

  • Testimony from an armed guard who is an eyewitness to organ harvesting
  • Chen Qiang, a kidney broker who worked for the transplant division of the PLA 307 Hospital in Beijing, admitted that the authorities, the police and the prison system collude in trading organs snatched from Falun Gong practitioners. Chen said he could provide documents which prove the organs came from Falun Gong practitioners
  • Staff from the Intermediate People’s Court of Jinzhou openly admitted that organs harvested from Falun Gong practitioners are available
  • Audio recordings of transplant doctors of more than 30 hospitals which confirm that organ donors were in fact detained Falun Gong practitioners
  • Chen Rongshan, Director of the Urology Department of PLA 205 Hospital, said that the courts are also involved in organ harvesting, and that he promises to not disclose using organs from Falun Gong practitioners in transplant operations
  • Evidence collected from 9,500 transplant doctors in 865 hospitals suspected of committing organ harvesting

1)Testimony from an armed guard who is an eyewitness of live organ harvesting

An armed police officer from Jinzhou city in Liaoning, who used to be an armed guard at a live organ-harvesting site, testified that he witnessed the entire process of organ harvesting from a Falun Gong practitioner. The guard told the investigator about this extreme abomination he had witnessed.

(Recording Download: MP3)

In 2002, the witness had been working for the public security (police) system of Liaoning Province and participated in the illegal arrests and torture of Falun Gong practitioners.

On April 9, 2002, in a surgery room on the 15th floor of the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, he saw a female Falun Gong practitioner in her 30s who had wounds and scars covering her entire body, the result of a week of torture, rape, and force-feeding. The Public Security Bureau of Liaoning province sent two military doctors, one from the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, PLA, and the other a graduate of the Second Military Medical University. They did not administer any anesthesia to the victim and extracted her heart, kidneys and other organs while she remained fully conscious, cold-bloodedly killing her in the process. During the entire process, the eyewitness was present and stood to one side as an armed guard. 

Eyewitness: “The scalpel was held by the chest, when it cut into the victim, the blood gushed out, the blood gushed out.”
Investigator: “Was the victim a man or a woman?”
Eyewitness: “A woman. A woman, a little over 30 years old. No anesthesia was used. They held the scalpel by her chest. Their hands did not tremble at all. If it were me, I would have trembled for sure. I might have served in the armed police force, I carried a  gun and I participated in military exercises with real ammo. But when I saw those military doctors, I had to give it to them, their hands did not tremble at all. They just pulled up their masks and [the gurney] was pulled close. We each held a gun and stood to the side, guarding. The woman screamed…and shouted ‘Falun Dafa is good.’”
Eyewitness: “There were more evil things. Anyway, I feel so sorry to her. Whenever I think of her at that moment, I feel very sorry,because I couldn’t save her.”
 -----

Eyewitness: “… they even extracted brains, I don’t know for what purpose.”

Investigator: “How many times did you witness organ harvesting?”

Eyewitness: “As an eyewitness, only once.”
Investigator: “I reckon once was enough to frighten you.”
Eyewitness: “After the first time, they never asked me again.”

We released a part of the witness's recording, according to his wishes. One week after the phone interview, we called his office again, but his colleague said that he had stopping coming to work without giving any reason.

We hope the witness is alive and well, and that he will live to see the day the truth finally comes out. I hope that someday he can truly step forward and testify to the world what he’s witnessed.

2) The PLA 307 Hospital in Fengtai, Beijing

Chen Qiang is a kidney broker who worked for the transplant division of the PLA 307 Hospital in Beijing. He admitted that officials, police, and the prison operate like an assembly line in trading organs harvested from Falun Gong practitioners. (Recording Download:MP3)

3) Intermediate People’s Court of Jinzhou

A court officer from the first division of criminal law at the Intermediate People's Court of Jinzhou stated clearly,“If the conditions (referring to the prices) are good, we can provide organs of Falun Gong practitioners.”(Recording Download: MP3)

4) Department of Urology at the PLA 205 Hospital in Jinzhou

Director of the Department of Urology Chen Rongshan admitted that donor organs come from detained Falun Gong practitioners, who went through the court …” (Recording Download: MP3.) Chen also guaranteed to keep the organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners secret.(Recording Download: MP3.)

5) Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated with Fudan University in Shanghai

A surgeon at the Liver Transplant Center offered consultation to an investigator posing as a patient.

Investigator: “Are there any organs from Falun Gong practitioners?”

Surgeon: “What we have here all belong to this type.”

(Recording Download: MP3.)

6) Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region (Recording Download: MP3.)

Investigator: “We found that kidneys from young donors are good.  Another thing is that the kidneys from Falun Gong detainees are indeed better. Do you have this kind?”

Zhu: “We do not have many Falun Gong (practitioners’) kidneys.”
Investigator: “You still have some of this (kidneys from Falun Gong practitioner) kind?”
Zhu: “It is not difficult to find Type B kidney (Falun Gong practitioner’s kidneys). If you want to come, we will do it pretty soon, definitely before May 1.”
Investigator: “Do you have one batch prior to May 1?”
Zhu: “We will have several batches.”
Investigator: “How about after May 1?”
Zhu: “If you wait until after May 1, it will be more likely to be around May 20.”
Investigator: “If you could obtain Falun Gong (practitioners’) kidney sources in this period of time, could you let me know?”
Zhu: “No problem, you come over and we can talk then...”

7) The Chinese Communist regime gave away relevant evidence, the crime of organ harvesting is undeniable

In 2008, the Chinese embassy in Canada released a TV program produced by Hong Kong Satellite TV in an attempt to deny the charges of live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners.

In the program, Doctor Lu Guoping of Guangxi National Hospital’s Urology Department admitted that he was the person who answered a phone call from a WOIPFG investigator on May 22, 2006. The state-controlled media unintentionally confirmed the validity of WOIPFG’s phone investigation. (Recording Download: MP3)

Investigator: “Do you think they can find a donor body from Falun Gong (practitioners) for me?”
Lu: “If you go there it shouldn’t be a problem at all.”
Investigator: “They can find it?”
Lu: “I can tell you, it’s an easy job for them to get organs.”
Investigator: “Easy job?”
Lu: “Since they do seven or eight liver transplants a week, they can do over ten kidney transplants a week. Every month they do dozens of transplants. So they don’t worry about getting organs.”
Investigator: “Did your schoolmates tell you that they used organs from Falun Gong practitioners, did he?”
Lu: “Some are from Falun Gong (practitioners), some are donors from family.”

Top surgeons from all over the country—from organ transplant centers in Beijing and Tianjin to those in Shanghai, Wuhan, Guangdong and Guangxi—clearly admit that Falun Gong practitioners were used as organ donors and guarantee that, in most cases, they can arrange the transplant within one or two weeks.

Table 9.1 20 Hospitals Admitted Using Falun Gong Practitioners’ Organs in Phone Recordings[18]

Hospital

Confirmation of Falun Gong practitioners as source

The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) No. 307 Hospital

Chen Qiang, a surgeon at the hospital’s transplant department and also a kidney broker, admitted that CCP officials, police and prison authorities orchestrate and operate the trade in Falun Gong practitioners’ organs, and they could even provide identification information, proving that the organ donors were indeed Falun Gong practitioners.[19]

2. The People’s Liberation Army No. 205 Hospital

Chen Rongshan, the head of the Urology Surgery Department admitted that the “donors” were detained Falun Gong practitioners, and this was done through the court.[20] 

3. Tianjin First Central Hospital

Director Song said, “We have similar situations (Falun Gong practitioner organs).”[21]

4. Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai

A surgeon said, “What we have here all belong to this type [Falun Gong practitioners].”[22]

5. Affiliated Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Shanghai First People’s Hospital)

Surgeon Dai said, “There is one kind, the ones doing the practice. Their bodies are very good.”[23]

6. Guangxi National Hospital

Urology transplant surgeon Lu Guoping admitted the hospital used Falun Gong practitioners as the source.[24]

7. Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

Falun Gong practitioners were used as the source for organs.[25]

8. General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region 

 

Investigator: “If you could obtain Falun Gong [practitioner] kidney sources in this period of time, could you let me know?”
Surgeon Zhu Yunsong: “No problem, you come over and we can talk then.”[26]

9. Second Affiliated Hospital of Hubei Medical University

Investigator: “What about kidney sources from prisoners who practice Falun Gong at your place?”
Doctor: “I would say not bad.”[27] 

10. Wuhan Tongji Hospital

Investigator: “Using supplies of live organs from Falun Gong (practitioners), is that okay?”

Answer: “It's not a problem.”[28]

11. Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital

Investigator: “There are some livers that come from Falun Gong practitioners. So I want to know if you have this type or not?”
Doctor: “Um. You just need to come.”
[29]

12. Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region

Director Tang of the kidney transplant department said, “If it is available from Falun Gong, then we use it.”[30]

13. First Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University

Cardiovascular surgery department and research lab director Shen Zhenya said, “Falun Gong practitioners ... Yes, we also have those. We had one case this year…”[31]

14. The Second Artillery General Hospital

Lu Wei, deputy director of transplant department, “(We) still do (organ transplants) right now. In the past, we used Falun Gong donors.”[32]

15. Beijing Anzhen Hospital

Deputy Chief Physician Zeng Wen of cardiac surgery department said, “I think you also know where the majority of donors come from. I think you know this very well, so we don’t have to say it explicitly…”[33]

16. Second Affiliated Hospital of Tsinghua University, Beijing Yuquan Hospital

Surgeon Li Honghui said they could provide Falun Gong practitioners’ kidneys.[34]

17. Chengdu City Air Force Hospital

Director Xu Yahong said that there would be a batch of kidney donors in the middle of May 2006, and that the hospital could provide organs from young and healthy Falun Gong practitioners.[35]

18. Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Province

Ophthalmology department doctor Liang Xianjun said, “The previous donors were from Falun Gong (practitioners) and condemned prisoners.”[36]

19. Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College

A surgeon said that there would be a batch of organ donors coming to the hospital in mid-April, 2006. The practitioners had better health. The kidneys were from young people of 20-30 years old, with no infectious diseases, AIDS or syphilis.[37]

20. General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region

A doctor said, “Falun Gong practitioners? Oh, that has nothing to do with you. You just want to have a kidney transplant operation? Rest assured, (the donors) we have are all young guys in their 20s.”[38]

 

II. Strong incentives promoting the development of new transplant technologies

1. Jiang Zemin personally signed an order to have the CCP Central Military Commission grant Wu Mengchao the honor of "Leading Medical Expert"and awarded Wu a first-class medal

According to CCP-controlled media, Jiang Zemin met with Wu Mengchao four times for having achieved breakthroughs in key liver transplant challenges, notably, the issue of liver transplant rejection. Wu holds the titles of director of the Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital of Second Military Medical University, Chief Consultant of the Army Organ Transplant Conference, and is known as the "father of hepatobiliary surgery in China." Jiang personally signed an order to have the Central Military Commission grant Wu the honor of "Leading Medical Expert," and awarded Wu a first-class medal.[39]

For having solved problems regarding liver transplant rejection and other key issues during the peak period of live organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners, Wu Mengchao was given the 2005 Annual National Supreme Science and Technology Award.[40] On January 17, 2006, Sun Dafa, Political Commissar of the General Logistics Department, awarded 1 million yuan (US$153,000) to Wu on behalf of the Department.[41]

By 2010, Wu Mengchao had completed more than 4,000 liver transplantations. On Oct. 10, 2011, the Central Propaganda Department, the Ministry of Health, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department, and the Shanghai Municipal Committee jointly held a "General Assembly to Present the Meritorious Deeds of Comrade Wu Mengchao" in the Great Hall. Xu Caihou (former vice chairman of CPC Central Military Commission), Li Jinai (current director of the General Political Department), Liao Xilong (current director of the General Logistics Department) attended the event.[42]These three men are key figures in the military’s involvement in organ harvesting.

2. Officials at different administrative levels support or get involved in the transplant industry

1) Zhang Gaoli, then vice secretary of Tianjin City Party Committee, visited a transplantation center and encouraged the center to "continue tapping into the advantage of organ transplantation."

From 2007 to 2012, Zhang Gaoli was the vice secretary of the Tianjin City Party Committee. The Organ Transplantation Center of Tianjin First Central Hospital is suspected of committing organ harvesting on a massive scale. This hospital allegedly conducts one third of all liver transplants in the entire country. On July 17, 2010, Zhang visited the center and encouraged its staff to "continue tapping into the advantage of organ transplantation."[43]

2) Han Qide, then Vice Chairman of the 11th National People’s Congress, personally guided and established the Organ Transplantation Center of Peking University.

3)Meng Jianzhu, then Secretary of Jiangxi Provincial Party Committee, supported the transplantation industry at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University.[44]

4) Bo Xilai, then Secretary of Liaoning Provincial Party Committee, is suspected of using Falun Gong practitioners to make plastinated bodies and conduct human experiments.

In our investigation, the Public Security Bureau, the Procuratorate and the legal systems, which were run by Luo Gan, then-Director of the CCP's Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission (PLAC), and later by Zhou Yongkang, Luo’s successor, are key agencies in the persecution of Falun Gong practitioners and in supplying "fresh human bodies."Both Bo Xilai and his wife Gu Kailai are primary suspects in these crimes.[45]

3.The military solves the issues of transplant rejection and organ preservation

1) Establish an early warning system for rejection and develop non-invasive diagnosis

Shi Bingyi, director of the Institute of Organ Transplantation of PLA 309 Hospital, established a system giving early warning to rejection through non-invasive diagnosis, which has become an important diagnostic method in the case of acute rejection. This development is patented by the state. Shi also established the low-dose immunosuppressive program in conjunction with the traditional medicine program to combat rejection.[46]

In February 2012, during an interview with Xinhua net, Shi said the most important issue in organ transplants is organ preservation and its extended survival. "There are two solutions, one is stem cell transplants, another solution is to improve the regulatory immune cell network such as through regulatory T cells. The latter has a good effect for extended organ preservation and immune tolerance. This is one of the transplant medicine advances we have achieved that places us at the forefront of transplant medicine worldwide. "

2) China has 396 organ transplant-related patents

As we know, transplant surgery requires an organ preservation solution and patients rely on anti-rejection agents during the postoperative stage. With the surge in transplant volume in China, many have wondered why the overseas market hasn’t seen a corresponding increase in demand for organ preservation solutions and anti-rejection agents. We found that many Chinese domestic transplant-related institutions began related research and development many years ago, and most transplant hospitals in China employ domestically developed products instead of relying on imports.

With regard to immunosuppressive drugs, Li Leishi, member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and director of the Institute of Nephrology Research of Nanjing Military General Hospital, found that Triptolide (monomer), the herbal extract of Tripterygium wilfordii, is an effective immunosuppressant, and has good efficacy in the treatment of acute rejection of kidney transplants.[47]Li Yantang, director of Department of Urology of the PLA General Hospital, and his student Qian Yeyong are also engaged in the research of tripterygium glycosides, a kidney suppressant made using Tripterygium wildfordii. Qian’s research is part of the research carried out under the National Natural Science Foundation of China.[48] Qian was the first one to succeed in using this immunosuppressant in clinical organ transplantation.[49]

Our investigation shows that of the several hundred transplant-related patents half are anti-rejection drugs and preservation solutions. Since 1999, China has patented 396 organ transplant-related products, 253 of which are anti-rejection drugs, accounting for 68.9 percent. WOIPFG has obtained online copies giving overviews to all of these patents. The following is one of such transplant immunosuppressant patents by the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, which belongs to the Academy of Military Medical Sciences of the Chinese PLA:

Figure 9.1 A patent for an immunosuppressant for organ transplants by the Academy of Military Medical Sciences.

3) An archived webpage of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital showed “98 percent of Chinese hospitals use the organ preservation solution developed by our hospital”

Shanghai Changzheng Hospital of the Second Military Medical University was one of the first hospitals to conduct kidney transplant surgeries. With the support of Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Zhu Youhua, a member of the Military Organ Transplantation Institute, and his team led the way in finishing the research on the kidney and multi-organ preservation solution, and put it into clinical application for 20 years, so that China’s research in this field is at the forefront in the world.[50] As displayed on Changzheng Hospital’s archived webpage, "98 percent of Chinese hospitals use the organ preservation solution we’ve developed.”[51]

This hospital has conducted a startling number of emergency liver transplants.The minimum waiting time for surgery was just four hours after the patient had been admitted. Zhu Youhua had personally completed 3,680 cases of kidney transplants by the end of 2010.[52]

Figure 9.2 Archived web page of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital of the Second Military Medical University

Military institutes, regional medical universities, hospitals and pharmaceutical institutes are also involved in this research and development. For example, the Organ Transplantation Institute of China Medical University has also taken part in the research and development of an organ preservation solution, and developed a kidney preservation solution. The institute claims it is at the forefront domestically in its research into organ preservation.[53]

We believe that such research, development and production of key transplant drugs are not initiated by the individual transplant centers themselves, but are instead dictated by the CCP as part of its support for carrying out nationwide organ harvesting.

4. Profiteering through bloody harvest

The General Logistics Department allocates donors to military hospitals and some local hospitals through multiple channels. Its operation model is paid directly in cash (foreign currency) when providing donors to the hospital, with the hospital self-financing the payout to the General Logistics Department. Military hospitals play a predominant role in carrying out transplant operations. Organs sold to local medical institutes are just for extra profit, with the wider aim to utilize local hospitals as advertising for overseas transplant patients. If military hospitals were the only ones performing transplant operations, the truth about organ harvesting would be easily uncovered.[54]

Since profits from transplants would not be accounted for in the military budget, and the layers of the organ harvesting system are maintained by the military, organ harvesting from living Falun Gong practitioners and organ trafficking have become a way of making money with low costs, and military officials are benefitting directly from the General Logistics Department’s budget.

For example, medical gross income of the organ transplant center of 309 Hospital, the "PLA Organ Transplant Center,” named by General Logistics Department Ministry of Health, increased from 30 million yuan (US$4.5 million) in 2006 to 230 million yuan (US$34.6 million) in 2010, a 5-year growth of nearly 800 percent.[55]

In another example, Daping Hospital of the No.3 Military Medical University started performing organ transplants in the late 1990s, and the annual income of the hospital increased from 36 million yuan (US$5.4 million) to over 900 million yuan (US$135.5 million). This was an increase of 25 times the hospital’s income in the 1990s.[56]

   ‹ Chapter 6, 7, 8              Chapter 10, 11 ›
 

Reference

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