WOIPFG Releases the List of 7, 423 Medical Personnel Suspected of Harvesting Organs from Living Falun Gong Practitioners in 788 Hospitals Nationwide Outside of Chinese Military Scope

2014-12-26
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Overview

Investigations conducted by World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG) on medical institutions not belonged to military scope in all the 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, and 4 municipalities throughout China indicate that, the year 1999 marked a significant watershed.  Before 1999, the number of units peforming human organ transplantation and the number of transplants they carried out were both very small, while after 1999, both numbers spiked rapidly.  According to the incomplete statistics WOIPFG has compiled, at least 765 civilian medical institutions started conducting organ transplantation after 1999, among them were a considerable number of hospitals of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), forensic hospitals, children’s hospitals, county-level hospitals, and specialist hospitals.  The time during which the number of organ transplants spiked highly coincides with the time duration when the Chinese Cmmunist Party (CCP) had been illegally abducting and detaining Falun Gong practitioners.  This report releases the list of 7,423 medical personnel suspected of harvesting organs from living Falun Gong practitioners in 788 Chinese civilian medical institutions.  Along with the list of 2,096 medical personnel in 103 Chinese Military and Armed Police Force hospitals suspected of harvesting organs from living Falun Gong practitioners released on July 10, 2016, at least 9,519 medical personnel in 891 Chinese medical institutions are suspected of harvesting organs from living Falun Gong practitioners for transplantation (while some other hospitals being investigated). 

Geographical distribution – locations of 865 Chinese medical institutions suspected of harvesting organs

from living Falun Gong practitioners for transplantation (Devember 26, 2014, http://goo.gl/jyV96Q)

 

WOIPFG herein lists below the abnormalities regarding the organ transplantation perfromed at the above 765 hospitals and presents specific examples.

1. Civilian hospitals have conducted as many as 24 different types of organ transplantation, which amounts to an exceedingly large number of cases

To date, WOIPFG has made effort on obtaining access to the overall situation of organ transplantation at the 765 Chinese civilian medical institutions in the 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 municipalities, and 217 prefectural-level cities throughout China. According to the incomplete statistics compiled from the publicly available data, these hospitals conducted altogether 114,098 cases of kidney transplantation, 27,603 cases of liver transplantation, 1,713 cases of heart transplantation, 503 cases of lung transplantation, 145,058 cases of corneal transplantation, 450 cases of combined liver-kidney transplantation, 286 cases of combined pancreas-kidney transplantation, 41 cases of combined heart-lung transplantation, 6 cases of combined heart-kidney transplantation, 5 cases of testicular transplantation, 6 cases of intestinal transplantation, 7 cases of combined liver-pancreas-duodenal transplantation, 4 cases of combined pancreas-duodenum-kidney transplantation, 1 case of combined liver-pancreas transplantation, 7 cases of pancreas transplantation, 2 cases of liver-intestinal transplantation, 4 cases of combined islet cell-kidney transplantation, 1 case of parathyroid transplantation, 1 case of combined thyroid-parathyroid-thymus transplantation, 1 case of adrenal transplantation, 6 cases of spleen transplantation, 1 case of upper abdominal organ cluster transplantation,  2 cases of combined seven- abdominal organ transplantation, 1 case of combined  eight-abdominal organ transplantation.

Up to July 10, 2016, at least 891 medical institutions in China are suspected of harvesting organs from living Falun Gong practitioners being along with the list published by WOIPFG on July 10, 2016, of those medical personnel at 103 Chinese military and Armed Police Force hospitals. At least 177,101 cases of kidney transplantation, 40,321 cases of liver transplantation, 1,928 cases of heart transplantation, and 152,799 cases of corneal transplantation have been performed at these hospitals.

The above statistics came from the Hospital websites and the papers published in Chinese medical journals. The published materials only reported a small portion of the total number of transplants conducted, and covered only a certain limited period of time, respectively. The exact numbers of transplants conducted at a considerable portion of the Hospitals cannot be incorporated into the total number.  Therefore, the data presented in the report fall far short of the actual figures.

2. Many hospitals conducted transplants of an exceedingly large total number

The Organ Transplant Center at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University had conducted over 4,000 cases of kidney transplantation till December 2013[1]. The Center also performed over 1,500 cases of liver transplantation as well as over 40 cases of upper abdominal organ cluster transplantation (liver-pancreas cluster), combined liver-kidney transplantation, and combined pancreas-kidney transplantation[2].

Tianjin First Central Hospital conducted 500 cases of liver transplantation and over 300 cases of kidney transplantation in 2004[3].   A total of 647 cases of orthotopic liver transplantation, 436 cases of kidney transplantation, 21 cases of combined liver-kidney transplantation, and 2 cases of combined pancreas-kidney transplantation in 2005[4].  A total of 676 cases of liver transplantation were conducted at the Hospital in 2006[5].  According to China Liver Transplant Registry (CLTR), Zhongyang Shen had led the transplant teams at Tianjin First Center Hospital as well as at the General Hospital of Armed Police Force to conduct 6, 270 cases of liver transplantation by the end of 2010[6]

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University has performed over 40, 000 cases of corneal transplantation and superficial ocular operations up to present[7]

The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University had conducted 3, 764 cases of kidney transplantation by December 2013[8].  The Hospital had supervised over 10,000 cases of kidney transplantation performed at 23 hospitals in 13 provincial cities by December 2012[9].

3. Numbers of transplants conducted at many hospitals increased dramaticly after 1999

The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (also known as The First Provincial Wenzhou Hospital of Zhejiang) set up the Department of Organ Transplantation[10] and the Tissue Typing Laboratory[11].  It was claimed in the Hospital’s introduction that 375 cases of kidney transplantation had been performed from 1985 to 2000, averaging out to 25 cases per year.  In 2006, the Hospital claimed over 100 cases of kidney transplantation had been performed annually[12].  Over 1, 600 cases/times [13],[14] of allogeneic kidney transplantation had been carried out by 2012.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University conducted 2 cases of orthotopic liver transplantation during 1993 to 1997[15].  After 1999 the number of transplants conducted at the Hospital spiked rapidly. The Hospital had conducted 1, 521 cases of liver transplantation by July 8, 2014[16].  The Hospital conducted 898 cases of kidney transplantation during July 1977 to December 1999, averaging out to 40 cases per year[17].  But over 3,300 cases of kidney transplantation had been  conducted in this hospital by May 2012, averaging out to 280 cases of kidney transplantation per year[18], 7 times the number of kidney transplants before 1999.

In May 1994, Zhongyang Shen performed the first case of liver transplantation at Tianjin First Central Hospital based on the record.  Only 5 to 8 cases of liver transplantation had been ever performed in the following 3 to 5 years at that hospital[19].  After 1999, the number of liver transplants conducted at the same institute dramatically increased - the Orient Organ Transplant Center within the hopital had conducted 2, 248 cases of liver transplantation by 2004, and had conducted on average over 300 cases of kidney transplantation plus 600 cases of liver transplantation per year.  The Division of Transplantation at the hospital also supervised the liver transplantation conducted in nearly 47 medical units of 16 provinces, and assisted with over 300 cases of liver transplantation at other hospitals[20].

There is another example- Shanghai General Hospital conducted 1,120 cases of kidney transplantation from 1978 to June 2000, averaging out to 50 cases of kidney transplantation per year[21].  However,  the Hospital conducted altogether 767 cases of kidney transplantation, 456 cases of liver transplantation as well as in total 1,501 cases of bone marrow transplantation, heart transplantation, lung transplantation, combined liver-kidney transplantation, combined pancreas-kidney transplantation, and corneal transplantation from 2001 to the end of 2005[22].  On the average 153 cases of kidney transplantation were conducted per year. 

4. Most of the listed hospitals set up “organ transplant center” after 1999

Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University established the Organ Transplant Center on October 30, 2001[23].  The center conducts over 100 organ transplants annually and the number of transplants is increasing by 50% every year.  On December 8, 2003, the Organ Transplant Center of Zhongshan Hospital joined with the largest organ transplant institute in the world to establish the “Cooperation Center for Zhongshan Hospital and Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute (STI), University of Pittsburg”[24].  Professor John J. Fung, U.S. Director of this Sino-American Cooperation Center, even did a demonstration of operation in an operating room of Zhongshan Hospital for his colleagues from all over China[25].  Nearly 1,000 cases of kidney transplantation, over 200 cases of liver transplantation, 107 cases of heart transplantation, 6 cases of combined heart-lung transplantation, and 11 cases of combined liver-kidney transplantation altogether had been conducted in Zhongshan Hospital by 2004; the number of organ transplants grows rapidly every year[26].

The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University started applying clinically and promoting liver transplantation in 1999[27].  The Hospital conducted over 200 cases of liver transplantation merely from January to November 2004[28], and 843 cases of liver transplantation from April 2001 to July 2006[29].  The Hospital performed 232 cases of combined combined liver-kidney extractions for transplantation from “donors” aged 18-35 during the period from January 2008 to June 2009[30]

The Ministry of Health of the PRC organized for discussion some experts and professionals in relevant fields of transplantation medicine and approved afterwards that Research Center of Chinese Health Ministry on Transplantation Medicine Engineering and Technology be established at the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (hereafter “the Center”) in 2005.  The Center conducted several hundred cases of piggyback liver transplantation and over 1, 000 cases of kidney transplantation after 3 years of development.  Further, the Center also conducted combined liver-kidney, liver-pancreas, liver-intestinal, pancreas-kidney, and multi-organ transplantation as well as spleen transplantation, pancreas transplantation, heart transplantation, splitting liver transplantation, related-“donor” liver transplantation, combined thyroid-parathyroid transplantation, liver cell transplantation, spleen cell transplantation, and pancreatic cell transplantation[31].

The Institute of Organ Transplant, Peking University (hereafter “the Institute”), formerly known as the Center of Organ Transplant, Peking University (hereafter “the Center”), was established in October 2001 under the personal supervision of Qide Han, Vice Chairperson of the 11th Standing Committee of National People’s Congress.  The Institute was jointly established by 5 hospitals affiliated to Peking University, including Peking University First Hospital, People’s Hospital, and Third Hospital, Peking University. The Institute conducted liver transplantation, kidney transplantation, pancreas transplantation, heart transplantation, corneal transplantation and bone marrow transplantation.  The Institute had conducted altogether over 900 cases of liver transplantation and nearly 2,000 cases of kidney transplantation by December 2013[32] . 

Longkai Peng, Associate Director of Organ Transplant Center and Director of Department of Urinary Surgery and Organ Transplantation at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (former called Second Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Medical University), has taken charge of the kidney transplantation at the Hospital since 2002. Within only 6 months the Hospital conducted more kidney transplants than it did during all the past years[33].  From its establishment year 2003 to 2010, the Department of Urinary Surgery and Organ Transplantation jointly performed over 1,000 cases of allogeneic kidney transplantation[34].

Guangdong No. 2 Provincial People’s Hospital established the Department of Organ Transplantation in 1999.  The Department administers the Organ Transplant Area, the Hemodialysis Area, and the Organ Transplant Laboratory; the Department conducts over 100 cases of kidney transplantation annually[35].

Department of Liver and Vascular Surgery in West China Hospital, Sichuan University started conducting liver transplantation in 1999[36].  The Hospital had performed 1, 000 cases of liver transplantation by 2013[37].

5. Many hospitals established organ transplant centers after 1999 although they failed to pass the qualification review by the Ministry of Health of the P.R.C. in 2007

Laixi No. 2 People’s Hospital is a Class Two general hospital[38].  The Hospital and Oriental Trading Company from Canada established a kidney transplant center as their joint venture in 2001[39].  The Hospital conducted over 100 cases of kidney transplantation over the years[40].

Tangshan Kidney Transplant Dialysis Center had conducted over 100 cases of allogeneic kidney transplantation within 3 years since its establishment in August 2000, and repeatedly performed kidney transplants in batches.

6. Many hospitals of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) started conducting organ transplantation after 1999

South China Organ Transplant Center was established under the Fourth Surgery Department at Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine on April 12, 2004.  Since establishment, the Center not only had performed standard liver transplantation, kidney transplantation, and pancreas transplantation but also planned to conduct heart transplantation.  Within less than two years, the Center conducted 1 case of combined liver-kidney transplantation, over 20 cases of liver transplantation, and over 50 cases of kidney transplantation[41].

Dongyang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Zhejiang province) is a Class Three Grade B hospital of TCM[42].  The Hospital started conducting kidney transplantation in 2001[43], and currently has over 100 kidney transplant patients receiving postoperative care[44].

Department of Urinary Surgery, Jiangsu Province Hospital of TCM has conducted kidney transplantation since October 2003[45] and conducts about 60 cases of kidney transplantation every year.  The Hospital also conducted liver transplantation [46].

Gongyi City Hospital (in Henan province) set up a Kidney Transplant Center in 2001[47].  The Center can receive 12 kidney transplant recepients simultaneously and conduct at most 8 cases of kidney transplantation in one day.  Hongdao Li, Director of Department of Urinary Surgery at the hospital, has conducted over 500 cases of allogeneic kidney transplantation[48].

7. Many hospitals at county level started conducting organ transplantation after 1999

Shuyang People’s Hospital is a Grade B hospital in northern Jiangsu; it independently conducted allogeneic kidney transplantation and corneal transplantation[49]. The Hospital performed the first case of allogeneic kidney transplantation on September 16, 2004[50].  Shangguo Chen, Director of Department of Urology, conducted 3 cases of allogeneic kidney transplantation in less than one year after he joined the Hospital[51].

Gong An County People’s Hospital is a Class Three general hospital[52].  The Hospital’s Department of Urinary Surgery has conducted over 100 cases of kidney transplantation [53].

8. Many children hospitals as well as maternal and child health hospitals started conducting organ transplantation after 1999

Dayue Li, Director of Department of Urologyat Linzi District Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Zibo City (also known as Qidu Hospital)[54], conducted as chief operating surgeon over 300 cases of kidney transplantation[55].

Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University has conducted liver transplantation since 2006[56].  The Hospital had conducted 59 cases of children’s liver transplantation by the end of May 2014[57].  

Changzhou Children’s Hospital of Jiangsu Province started conducting allogeneic orthotopic liver transplantation in 2005[58].

Department of Urinary Surgery at Nanjing Children’s Hospital conducted kidney transplantation[59].  The Hospital conducted the first case of heart transplantation in Jiangsu province in August 2000[60].

9. Forensic hospitals participated in performing organ transplantation and tissue typing

The Key Laboratory of Forensic Sciences was established by Department of Forensic Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong University upon approval by Department of Medical Science, Technology and Education under the Ministry of Health of P.R.C in October 1999.  The Laboratory was jointly established by the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Supreme People’s Court of the P.R.C.  The Laboratory claimed that the research it made on organ transplantation and tissue typing was state-of-the-art[61].

Center of Paternity Testing Center (Forensic Evidence Room), Kunming Forensic Hospital completed several thousand cases of tissue typing for organ transplantation from 2001 to 2008[62].  The Hospital had conducted 1, 537 cases of kidney transplantation in cooperation with Center for Blood Purification and Organ Transplant at Taiping People’s Hospital of Dongguan (now Dongguan Fifth People’s Hospital) by April 2008[63]

10. Many hospitals failed to pass the qualification review by the Ministry of Health of P.R.C. in 2007 but still started regularly conducting kidney transplantation and corneal transplantation

The Central Hospital of Yongzhou (formerly known as “Yongzhou People’s Hospital, Hunan Province”) established “Yongzhou Kidney Transplant Center” in 1999[64].  The Hospital claimed that it could regularly conduct kidney transplantation and corneal transplantation[65].

The Department of Urinary Surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (also known as “Yijishan Hospital”) claimed that it could conduct kidney transplantation and has regularly conducted kidney transplantation in recent two years[66].  The Hospital claimed to have conducted transplantations of other organs, such as bone marrow transplantation, corneal transplantation, and heart transplantation, on the basis of liver transplantation and kidney transplantation that were already performed[67].

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University claimed to have regularly taken various approaches to corneal transplantation; the Hospital has conducted over 5, 000 cases of various types of corneal transplantation to date[68].

11. Many hospitals conduct transplant operations in batches on different operating tables simultaneously

Dongfeng General Hospital simultaneously conducted 10 cases of kidney transplantation, 1 case of parathyroid transplantation, and 3 cases of corneal transplantation on the same day in August 2000[69].

Qingshan Qu, Director of Center for Kidney Diseases and Organ Transplant at People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou, completed 13 cases of kidney transplantation leading a group within 21 hours on December 27, 2007[70].

The Department of Urology of the First People’s Hospital of Foshan conducted 7 cases of kidney transplantation simultaneously on December 29, 2005[71].  Moreover, the Hospital conducted 5 cases of kidney transplantation and 2 cases of liver transplantation within less than 24 hours, from the morning of December 28 to the daybreak of December 29, 2004[72].

Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital conducted 6 cases of kidney transplantation within 24 hours on April 26, 2002; the Hospital conducted 5 cases of kidney transplantation and 1 case of liver transplantation again within 24 hours on October 27, 2002; the Hospital conducted 10 cases of kidney transplantation and 1 case of liver transplantation within 3 days from January 9 to January 12, 2004[73].

The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University set the record of simultaneously conducting 6 cases of major organ transplantation on the same day[74].  The Hospital claimed that Jianzhu Meng, Secretary of Provincial Party Committee, had been quite concerned with and supportive of the Hospital’s organ transplant business.  Meng personally pulled strings to form alliance and foster cooperation between the hospital with Shanghai Organ Transplantation Center (in Shanghai First People’s Hospital) [75].

Xiangya Hospital, Central South University even conducted 17 cases of organ transplantation in one day on April 28, 2006, including 7 terminal uremia patients receiving kidney transplantation simultaneously, as well as 2 cases of liver transplantation and 8 cases of corneal transplantation completed on the same day[76].

According to Guangzhou Daily of March 14, 2006, a reporter witnessed 5 liver transplants and 6 kidney transplants being conducted simultaneously in operating rooms at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University.  The reporter also mentioned the Hospital performed as many as 19 cases of kidney transplantation in one day; the maximum record for liver transplant is 6 cases of liver transplantation and 1 case of multi-organ transplantation in one day[77].

According to Tianjin Channel Xinhua Net of February 7, 2005, Orient Organ Transplantation Center, Tianjin First Center Hospital conducted 108 cases of liver transplantation (averaged by 5 workdays per week, 4 to5 cases of liver transplantation done per workday), and 43 cases of kidney transplantation within merely the first month of 2005[78].

12. The hospitals generally claim abundant supplies of “donor” organs

The Department of Ophthalmology at the First People’s Hospital of Changde claimed it regularly conducted corneal transplantation and had adequate sources of corneas[79].

Weifang Eye Hospital claimed its eye bank was accredited as a standard eye bank for Weifang City by Shangdong Provincial Department of Health at the end of 2007, and has provided adequate corneas for corneal transplant patients.  The Hospital had performed several thousand cases since it started conducting corneal transplantation in 1999[80].

The Department of Kidney Transplantation at Yiyang People’s Hospital stated, “We have built close coordination and cooperation with the General Hospital of People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and Kidney Transplant Center at the Affiliated Hospital of First Military Medical University; we select the best kidneys; we do a comprehensive and strict checkup on the kidneys from ‘donors’ beforehand to ensure the optimal quality and result of organs from ‘donors’ and tissue typing [81].” The Hospital had performed 118 cases of kidney transplantation from September 2002 to September 2006[82].

The Kidney Transplant Center at the Third People’s Hospital of Changde claimed to have strong support from the government.  The Center conducts 50-100 cases of kidney transplantation annually and has stable and reliable “donor” kidney supplies[83].

13. The hospitals generally claim extremely short wait times for “donor” organs and are able to perform emergency organ transplantation

Department of Liver Transplantation and Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery at the People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou currently performs nearly 100 cases of liver transplantation per year, and cures over 20 cases of acute liver failure with emergency liver transplantation per year[84].

Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University conducted 46 cases of emergency liver transplantation from January 2000 to December 2004.  All of the above patients received orthotopic liver transplantation within 72 hours[85].  The Department is also designated by the Ministry of Health as Key Laboratory of Multi-Organ Combined Transplantation.   

14. Organ transplantation is a highly lucrative business for transplant hospitals

Xi’an Gaoxin Hospital claimed that its departments conducted altogether 232 cases of allogeneic kidney transplantation and over 30 cases of allogeneic liver transplantation within 5 years since its establishment from 2002 to 2007.  Thus, Department of Urinary Surgery at Xi’an Gaoxin Hospital made revenues of more than RMB 10 million yuan.  This amount greatly exceeds the total revenues made by all then Class-Three-Grade-A hospitals in Xi’an and may well stand comparison with those made by Department of Urinary Surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University and Xijing Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University[86].

List of Suspects Under Investigation

Chinese medical personnel involved in organ harvesting from living Falun Gong practitioners, include but are not limited to: doctors specializing in organ extraction and transplantation, nurses, and anesthetists.  Fundamental medical ethics and international regulations on organ donation maintain that these medical personnel, prior to presenting credible and reliable evidence that could repudiate the aforementioned allegations, are seen as either suspects or material witnesses of crimes of genocide and murder. 

WOIPFG hereby releases the list of 7, 423 medical personnel in 788 Chinese civilian medical institutions nationwide subject to investigation.

 

(Updated on July 10, 2016)

 

Refenrences:


[1] Website, familydoctor.com.cn, about present state of organ transplant

《家庭医生在线》器官移植现状

[2] East branch hospital of The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University website, for Introduction of the third ward of organ transplantation

《中山大学附属第一医院东院官网》器官移植三区

[3] Website, transplant-china, about “Events of Orient Organ Transplant Centre in Tianjin”. Released on October 10, 2008. Source: tianjinwe.com- Tianjin Daily

《中国器官移植网》  2008年10月10日  东方器官移植中心大事记  来源:津报网-天津日报

[4] Orient Organ Transplant Centre in Tianjin website, about “2005 year-end summary of the general assembly”, released on January 5, 2006

《东方器官移植中心》 2006年1月5日“2005年中心年终总结大会”

[5] Zhang Guoliang. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of biliary complications after liver transplantation. From Proceedings of Chinese Medical Association: the 7th National Conference on Gastrointestinal Disease. Date of conference: May 5, 2007

“肝移植术后胆道并发症的内镜诊断和治疗”作者:张国梁   母体文献:中华医学会第七次全国消化病学术会议论文集  会议名称:中华医学会第七次全国消化病学术会议 会议时间:2007-05-05

[6] Tianjin First Central Hospital website, for Introduction of Shen Zhongyang (a specialist)

《天津市第一中心医院》沈中阳简介

[7] Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yet-Sen University website, for Introduction of the Division of Corneal Disease

《中山大学中山眼科中心》角膜病专科

[8] The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University website, about the culture and team work of the Department of Kidney Transplantation

《西安交通大学第一附属医院》肾移植科的学科文化及团队精神

[9] The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University website, for Introduction of the Department of Kidney Transplantation

《西安交通大学第一附属医院》肾移植科简介

[10] History of organ transplant in our hospital. The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University News 2006:vol 18, 19. Source: The Department of Development

《温州医科大学附属第一医院院报》2006年第18、、19期“我院器官移植工作历程 ”来源;发展部

[11] The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University website, for Introduction of Transplant Center

《温州医科大学附属第一医院网站》移植中心

[12] History of organ transplant in our hospital. The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University News 2006:vol 18, 19. Source: The Department of Development

《温州医科大学附属第一医院院报》2006年第18、、19期“我院器官移植工作历程 ”来源:发展部

[13] The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University website, Overview (of the hospital)

《温州医科大学附属第一医院网站》医院介绍

[14] The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University website, about Yang Yirong ( a chief physician in the Department of Organ Transplantation)

《温州医科大学附属第一医院网站》移植科--杨亦荣主任医师

[15] Zheng Shusen, Liang Tingbo, Xu Xiao, Wang Weilin, Shen Yan, Zhang Min, Huang Dongsheng. Ten year’s experience on liver transplantation in a single organ transplantation center. Chinese Journal of General Surgery 2003; 18(02): 71-73

  《中华普通外科杂志》2003年18卷02期 71-73页(英文期刊名:CHINESE JOURNAL OF GENERAL SURGERY)“肝脏移植10年120例经验回顾”作者:郑树森、梁廷波、徐骁、王伟林、沈岩、张珉、黄东胜(310003,杭州,浙江大学医学院附属第一医院肝胆胰外科及器官移植中心)

[16] Website, transplant-china, about “1521 cases of liver transplantation have been conducted in The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University.” released on July 8, 2014

  《中国器官移植网》浙大一院至今已做了1521例肝移植  日期:2014年7月8日

[17] Huang Hongfeng, Chen Jianghua, Wang Yimin, Wu Jiangyong, Zhang jianguo, Shou Zhangfei. Clinical analysis of malignant tumor in recipients of renal transplantation: a report of 5 cases. Chinese Journal of Nephrology, Dialysis & Transplantation 2000; 9(3): 226-228

  《肾脏病与透析肾移植杂志》2000年9卷03期 226-228页(英文期刊名:Chinese Journal of Nephrology,Dialysis & Transplantation)“肾移植患者并发恶性肿瘤(附5例临床分析)” 作者:黄洪锋、陈江华、王逸民、吴建永、张建国、寿张飞(浙江大学医学院附属第一医院肾移植血液净化中心(杭州,310003))

[18] Website, health.zjol.com, about Professor Chen Jianghua was awarded “International Medals” by National Kidney Foundation (U.S.): the clinical technique for end-stage kidney disease of Kidney Center attracted the attention of international academia

《浙江在线健康网》陈江华教授获美国肾脏病基金会“国际卓越成就奖章”浙大附属一院肾脏病中心终末期肾病诊疗技术受到国际医学界瞩目

[19] Website, baike, about transplant tourism

《互动百科》器官移植旅游

[20] Orient Organ Transplant Centre in Tianjin website, about “2005 year-end summary of the general assembly”, released on January 5, 2006

《东方器官移植中心》 2006年1月5日“2005年中心年终总结大会”

[21] Fan Yu, Bao Erdun, Liu Zhihong, Zhang Xianyou, Tan Jianming. Analysis of 47 cases of malignant tumors in kidney transplantation recipients. Chinese Journal of Organ Transplantation 2003; 24(2): 115-116

《中华器官移植杂志》2003年24卷02期 115-116页(英文期刊名:CHINESE JOURNAL OF ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION)“肾移植术后恶性肿瘤47例分析”  作者:范昱、包尔敦、刘志宏、张先有、谭建明 (200080,上海市第一人民医院泌尿外科)

[22] Website, ewsos, about Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People's Hospital

《医网》上海市第一人民医院

[23] Website, 91985.com, about Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University

  《上海助医网》复旦大学附属中山医院

[24] Website, sina.com, “ Cooperation with the largest organ transplant institute, Zhongshan Hospital steps up” released on December 9 2003, by correspondent Qin Sicui and reporter Chen Qing

《新浪网》2003年12月9日通讯员秦嗣萃 记者陈青报道“中山医院与世界最大器官移植机构携手 器官移植更上一层楼”

[25] Website, sina.com, “ Cooperation with the largest organ transplant institute, Zhongshan Hospital steps up” released on December 9 2003, by correspondent Qin Sicui and reporter Chen Qing

《新浪网》2003年12月9日通讯员秦嗣萃 记者陈青报道“中山医院与世界最大器官移植机构携手 器官移植更上一层楼”

[26] Organ transplant Center of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University website, for Introduction of the Center

《复旦大学器官移植中心》中心介绍

[27] Institute of Organ Transplantation, Sun Yat-Sen University website, History of Liver transplantation

《中山大学器官移植研究所》肝移植历史

[28] Institute of Organ Transplantation, Sun Yat-Sen University website, for Introduction of the Institute

《中山大学器官移植研究所》中心介绍

[29] Jiang Nan, Zhang Jian, Li Hua, Wang Genshu, Zhang Junfeng, Yi Shuhong, Yang Yang, Lu Minqiang, Chen Guihua. Relationship between variation of donor hepatic injury and different procurement methods. Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery 2010; 16(7):488-491

《中华肝胆外科杂志》2010年16卷07期 488-491页(英文期刊名:CHINESE JOURNAL OF HEPATOBILIARY SURGERY)“不同切取方法对肝移植供肝动脉解剖变异的损伤分析”作者:姜楠、张剑、李华、汪根树、张俊峰、易述红、杨扬、陆敏强、陈规划 (中山大学附属第三医院肝脏移植中心, 中山大学器官移植研究所, 广州, 510630)

[30] Fu Binsheng, Zhang Tong, Li Hua, Yi Shuhong, Wang Genshu, Zhang Jian, Jiang Nan, Xu Chi, Yang Yang, Lu Minqiang, Chen Guihua. Prevention and accident injury in the process of combined liver and kidney graft rapid harvesting. Chinese Journal of Practical Surgery 2011; 31(10): 947-949

《中国实用外科杂志》 2011年10月 第31 卷 第10期“肝肾联合供体快速切取失误及其防范”作者:傅斌生,张 彤,李 华,易述红,汪根树,张 剑,姜 楠,许 赤,杨 扬,陆敏强,陈规划(中山大学附属第三医院肝移植中心 中山大学器官移植研究所 广东省器官移植研究中心,广东广州510630)

[31] 424. The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University website, for Introduction of the Department of Organ Transplantation

《中南大学湘雅三医院》移植专科

[32] Peking University Health Science Center Weekly 2013 vol.21, about Peking University People’s Hospital undertook the 2nd Council of human organ procurement training program and human organ transplant policy. Source: Peking University People’s Hospital website, Hospital News released on December 3, 2013

《北京大学医学部》 信息周刊 2013年 第21期 2013年12月03日 来源:北京大学人民医院 “【医院动态】北京大学人民医院承办第二届人体器官获取组织培训暨人体器官移植政策培训会议”

[33] The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University website, for Introduction of Peng Longkai ( a specialist of urological organ transplantation)

《中南大学湘雅二医院》泌外器官移植科  彭龙开专家介绍

[34] The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University website, for Introduction of Nursing unit of the Department of Urological Organ Transplantation. Released on November 7, 2010. Editor: Gong Yajun

《中南大学湘雅二医院》泌外器官移植科护理部介绍  时间:2010/11/7 10:35:17 编辑:龚亚军

[35] Guangdong No.2 Provincial People's Hospital website, for Introduction of the Department of Organ Transplantation

《广东省第二人民医院官网》器官移植科 科室介绍

[36] West China Hospital, Sichuan University website, for Introduction of Yan Lunan (a specialist)

四川大学华西医院》专家介绍  严律南

[37] West China Hospital, Sichuan University website, about our hospital held the 13th meeting of firends of liver patients in West China Hospital. Released on December 24, 2013

《四川大学华西医院》我院召开第十三届华西肝友会  发布时间:2013-12-24

[38] Website, baike, about Laixi No.2 People′s Hospital

《互动百科》莱西市第二人民医院简介

[39] Website, baike, about Laixi No.2 People′s Hospital

《互动百科》莱西市第二人民医院简介

[40] Website, yynet.cn, about Laixi No.2 People′s Hospital, Qingdao

《医元网》青岛莱西市第二人民医院简介

[41] Website, familydoctor.com.cn, for Introduction of south china Organ Transplant Centre in Chinese Medicine Hospital, Guangdong Province

《家庭医生在线》广东省中医院华南器官移植中心简介

[42] The Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Dongyang website, Overview of the hospital

《东阳市中医院》基本信息

[43] Website, dongyang.gov.cn, for Introduction of the Department of Kidney Disease in The Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital

《中国.东阳》东阳市中医院——肾病专科

[44] Website, baike.baidu, about The Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Dongyang

《百度百科》东阳市中医院

[45] Website, 91kang.cn, about  Jiangsu Province Hospital of TCM has successfully established a precedent of kidney homotransplantation operation at Chinese medicine hospitals in China.

《91健康网》江苏省中医院异体肾移植成功开全国中医院器官移植先河

[46] Website, 91160, for Introduction of the Department of  Anesthesiology in Jiangsu Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine

《就医160》江苏省中医院麻醉科简介

[47] Website, baike, about Gongyi Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital

《互动百科》巩义市中医院简介

[48] Yuxi Kidney Transplantation Center website,  about Li Hong-dao  (a a specialist)

《中国豫西肾病肾移植中心》“专家介绍-- 李宏道”

[49] Website, shuyang.gov.cn, about Shuyang People’s Hospital

《花乡沭阳》沭阳县人民医院

[50] Website, people.com.cn,, Return your true health and bring blessings to you , Released on December 20, 2005

《人民网》还您一个健康 送您一片温馨——记沭阳县人民医院  日期:2005年12月20日

[51] Website, xhrb.jschina.com.cn, After 70 years of ups and downs, reforms have led to brilliant achievements

《新华日报》 风雨七十年  改革铸辉煌

[52] Gong An County People’s Hospital of Hubei Province website, Overview of the hospital

《湖北公安县人民医院》医院概况

[53] Website, 39.net, for Introduction of the Department of Urinary Surgery in Gong An County People’s Hospital of Hubei Province

《39健康网》公安医院泌尿外科简介

[54] Website, baike.baidu, about Qidu Hospital

《百度百科》齐都医院

[55] Qidu Hospital website, about Da-yue Li (a physician)

《齐都医院》李大跃简介

[56] Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University website, for Introduction of the Department of Hepatic Surgery

《重庆医科大学附属儿童医院》肝胆外科

[57] Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University website, about children’s liver transplantation in Medical Special Department. Released on December 30, 2013. Source: chcmu.com

 《重庆医科大学附属儿童医院》特色技术专科  儿童肝移植 更新时间:2013-12-30   来源:重庆医科大学附属儿童医院

[58] Website, baike.baidu, about Changzhou Children’s Hospital of Jiangsu Province

《百度百科》常州市儿童医院

[59] Website, baike.baidu, about Nanjing Children’s Hospital

《百度百科》南京市儿童医院

[60] Nanjing Children’s Hospital website, for Introduction of the Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

《南京市儿童医院》心胸外科简介

[61] Xi’an Jiaotong University website, for Introduction of The Key Laboratory of the Department of Forensic Sciences, under the Ministry of Health

《西安交通大学》卫生部法医学重点实验室

[62] Center of Forensic Science of Kunming Forensic Hospital website, about Shuai Li (a a specialist)

《昆明法医院司法鉴定中心》专家简介 帅莉

[63] Shuai Li,  Guo Cui-hua, Yuan Xiao-peng, Gao Wei, Wu Zhao-xiang. Clinical research on renal transplantation of highly sensitized recipients. Laboratory Medicine and Clinic 2008; 5 (07): 396-398.

《检验医学与临床》  2008年5卷07期 396-398页(英文期刊名LABORATORY MEDICINE AND CLINIC)“高度致敏受者行肾移植术的临床研究”作者:帅莉、郭翠华、袁小鹏、高伟、吴兆祥

[64] The Central Hospital of Yongzhou website, for Introduction of Yongzhou People’s Hospital. Released on July 10, 2013

《永州市中心医院》官方网站 “永州市人民医院” 时间:2013年7月10日

[65] The Central Hospital of Yongzhou website, Overview of the hospital

《永州市中心医院》官方网站 医院简介

[66] Website, ewsos, for Introduction of the Department of Urinary Surgery at Yijishan Hospital of Wannan

《医网》 芜湖弋矶山医院泌尿外科科室简介

[67] Website, baike.baidu, about Yijishan Hospital of Wannan

《百度百科》 弋矶山医院简介

[68] The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University website, for Introduction of the Department of Ophthalmology

《南昌大学第二附属医院》眼科简介

[69] Dongfeng General Hospital website, for Introduction of the Department of Organ Transplantation and Breast Surgery

《东风总医院》器官移植乳腺外科简介

[70] Website, liyihuaxia.px33, about Medical Treatment and Nursing Etiquette Training: People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou, its excellent service and as a leading brand. Released on April 8, 2010.

《华夏礼仪培训网》 发布时间:2010-4-8 “医护礼仪培训--郑州人民医院服务旗帜与品牌风范”

[71] The First People’s Hospital of Foshan website, The Department of Urology conducted 7 cases of kidney transplantation simultaneously

《佛山市第一人民医院》泌尿外科同时完成7台肾移植手术

[72] The First People’s Hospital of Foshan website, They create everlasting touching stories. Source: The First People’s Hospital. Released on January 6, 2005.

《佛山市第一人民医院》他们让“感动”流芳  来源:市一医院 日期:2005-1-6

[73] Website, baike.baidu, about Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital

《百度百科》胜利油田中心医院

[74] The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University website, for Introduction of the Department of Organ Transplantation

《南昌大学第一附属医院》器官移植科

[75] The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University website, for Introduction of the Department of Organ Transplantation

《南昌大学第一附属医院》器官移植科

[76] Website, xiangya.com.cn, about Setting new reords of conducting 17 cases of organ transplantation in one day. Released on May 14, 2006.

《湘雅医院院报》2006年5月14日“我院再创器官移植手术新记录 换肝换肾换角膜17台手术一天完成”

[77] Website, gzdaily.dayoo, Organ Transplantation helps contiue life. Released on March 14, 2006.

《广州日报》2006年3月14日“器官移植重续生命乐章”

[78] Website, xinhuanet, News on Frebruary 7, 2005. Reporter: Lin Shu-wen, Zhang Xiao-hui.

《新华网》2005年2月7日报道 作者:林树文、张晓辉

[79] The First People’s Hospital of Changde website, for Introduction of the Department of Ophthalmology

《常德市第一人民医院》眼科专科特色简介

[80] Weifang Eye Hospital website, for Introduction of the Cornea Center

《潍坊眼科医院》角膜病治疗中心简介

[81] Website, haodf, about The Department of Kidney Transplantation at Yiyang People’s Hospital

《好大夫在线》益阳市人民医院肾移植科简介

[82] Cui Sai-hui. Experience of clinical nursing for patients with kidney homotransplantation. Chinese General Nursing 2010; 8(18): 1626-1627.

《全科护理》2010年08卷18期 1626-1627页(英文期刊名:CHINESE GENERAL NURSING)“同种异体肾移植病人的临床护理体会”作者:崔赛辉(湖南省益阳市人民医院,413001)

[83] Website, haodf, about The Kidney Transplant Center at the Third People’s Hospital of Changde

《好大夫在线》——常德市第三人民医院肾移植科简介

[84] People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou website, for Introduction of the Department of Hepato-Biliary Surgery

《南方医科大学附属郑州市人民医院》肝胆外科简介

[85] Wang Weilin, Zheng Shusen, Xu Xiao, Liang Tingbo, Jin Jing, Shen Yan, Zhang Min, Wu Jian. Clinical evaluation of emergency liver transplantation for patients with benign end-stage liver diseases. National Medical Journal of China 2005; 85(49): 3460-3463.

《中华医学杂志》2005年85卷49期 3460-3463页(英文期刊名: NATIONAL MEDICAL JOURNAL OF CHINA)“急诊肝移植治疗良性终末期肝病的临床分析” 作者:王伟林、郑树森、 徐骁、梁廷波、金晶、沈岩、张珉、吴健 (310003, 杭州, 浙江大学医学院附属第一医院肝胆胰外科、卫生部多器官联合移植研究重点实验室)

[86] Xi’an Gaoxin Hospital website, Ten years at the Department of Urinary Surgery. Released on September 5, 2012. Author: Zhang Liu-yong

《西安高新医院》官方网站  十年泌尿外科――“10年记忆” 时间:2012-09-05   作者:张刘勇


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