To investigate the criminal conduct of all institutions, organizations, and individuals involved in the persecution of Falun Gong; to bring such investigations, no matter how long it takes, no matter how far and deep we have to search, to full closure; to exercise fundamental principles of humanity; and to restore and uphold justice in society.

The Chinese Communist Party’s State-run Prison Slave Labor Industry (1st part)

--- CCP’s Secret Weapon in the Trade War
July 20, 2019

Please see related links:

The Second part

 

Foreword

By investigating the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) prisons and now-abolished labor camps forcing Falun Dafa (i.e. Falun Gong) practitioners to produce slave labor products, World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG) uncovers the CCP’s serious violation of human rights of enslaved individuals. It also brings to light the economic aggression against the international community and its destruction of human moral conscience. The slave labor victims are mainly Falun Gong practitioners, as well as human rights advocates such as lawyers with a sense of justice.

The large-scale production and circulation of these ultra-low-cost and extremely competitive slave labor products have made a great impact on the international labor market and economic market. The result is bankruptcies of a large number of businesses in the same industries. At the same time, the large number of people who lost their jobs as a result of this unfair competition, have become a serious burden to the international society and foreign governments, disrupting the normal order of the market economy. 

More severely, the existing slave labor enterprises in China are wholly state-owned. they are established by using the human and material resources of all Chinese prisons. They have been transformed from the previous prison enterprise system into a state slave labor industry with a unified and militarized management by the Chinese Communist Party, directly led and guided by its judiciary system, and with the financial support from the state. According to the incomplete data obtained from our investigation, there are at least 681 state-owned prison enterprises in 30 provinces, municipalities directly under the central government’s control and autonomous regions in China. Since these enterprises have a centralized and unified management, their manpower resources are slave labor with almost no cost; they challenge the individual’s physiological and psychological limits and use torture to coerce the detainees to perform slave labor; there is the massive scale of human resources in prisons, now-abolished labor camps and brainwashing centers; and there are the CCP’s economic information resources, and the support from the state economic and trade diplomacy and preferential policies, a super-strong economic and trade entity beyond any restriction has come into being. It serves as an enormously powerful strategic weapon for the CCP’s international trade and economic aggression. As a result, in the entire world, no company can compete with the CCP’s slave labor enterprises. Regardless how many tariffs the United States imposes on China, the CCP’s slave labor industry will not be significantly affected.

The scale and production capacity of these enterprises and their subsidiaries are astonishing. For example, Sichuan Heqiang Group Co., Ltd.[1], affiliated to the Sichuan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has at least 43 subsidiaries. The general manager of the company, Zeng Yongzhong, is also the deputy director and communist party committee member of the Sichuan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau.[2] Sichuan Heqiang Group Co., Ltd. was established as a parent company in November 2011, and subsequently, the 43 prisons across the province all set up its subsidiary companies. As of December 31, 2017, the total assets of these prison enterprises in Sichuan Province reached 3.485 billion yuan.

Among them, Sichuan Xinlei Industry Co., Ltd.[3], one of its subsidiary companies, is affiliated to Sichuan Leimaping Prison, has more than 1,100 police guards and soldiers of the People’s Liberation Army, and is capable of detaining 100,000 inmates. Located in the deep mountains at the border of Sichuan Province and Yunnan Province and surrounded by 133 square kilometers of rolling hills, the prison has 230 detention sites on different hill tops and the highest hilltop site confines more than 23,000 inmates. Its business operations include electronic equipment manufacturing; hydropower generation; housing services; textile and garment processing; manufacturing of construction materials, plastic products, daily commodities and household goods; retail of prepackaged foods and dairy products; and retail of cigarettes and cigars.

The CCP refers to this slave labor system in its prisons, now-defunct labor camps and detention centers as “reform through labor”. Due to the lure of huge profits from slave labor products, the slave labor industry has been becoming more and more developed. Especially since the CCP began suppressing Falun Gong practitioners in 1999, the scale of the CCP’s slave labor production has expanded rapidly. With the CCP’s “reform and open-up policy” and its accession to the WTO, in order to highlight the prison economy’s “competitive advantages” in the trend towards economic globalization, in 2003, the Chinese Communist Party separated its prison enterprises from their affiliated prisons and set up new wholly state-owned prison enterprises, their subsidiaries and branch companies. The legal representatives of these prison enterprises at all levels are Communist Party officials, thus forming the CCP’s state slave labor industry that is planned, coordinated and managed in a highly militarized and unified manner, from the CCP Central Committee to its grass-roots levels.

The information collected by WOIPFG indicates that severe abuse of slave labor exists in the prisons and existed in the now-abolished labor camps of the Chinese communist regime. All detained Falun Gong practitioners have suffered from severe slave labor. The enslaved victims also include human rights activists and righteous lawyers, who have the courage to speak for vulnerable groups and fight  for justice. The victims are aged between 16 and 70. Within barbed wires and prison walls, many of them are forced to work painstakingly between 12 and 19 hours a day. When the "production tasks" were heavy, they would have to "work overtime" for even more hours; sometimes they cannot sleep for several days in a row. The enslaved individuals endure unspeakable and unimaginable physical and mental sufferings, adverse living conditions, punishments and even torture, which challenge their physiological and psychological limits. Many of them have contracted various diseases or become incapacitated due to persecution; some have even perished under persecution.

On June 18, 1998, at its closing ceremony of the 86th session in Geneva, the International Labor Organization formally passed the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, which points out clearly the need to eliminate “all forms of forced or compulsory labor”. As a participating member of the International Labor Organization, instead of carrying out the Organization’s provisions, China has adopted many preferential policies for the businesses within its labor camp and prison systems, while stimulating and encouraging the growth of such enterprises and attracting foreign investments for them. Protected by such preferential policies, businesses located in the economic development zones of some provinces and cities even try to attract foreign investments by directly advertising the cheaper labor from the imprisoned individuals, which has resulted in an alarming expansion of slave labor enterprises. For example, Hangzhou Z-shine industrial Co., Ltd. now has 38 prisons as its production units, with more than 40,000 prisoners manufacturing fabrics and clothes for exports, and 90 percent of their products are sold overseas.

This investigative report represents only the tip of the iceberg of the slave labor reality under the Chinese communist regime. The problems it identifies, however, have an impact on the whole society, which is of deep concern. What is happening in the communist China is not only a violation of the enslaved laborers’ human rights, but also a devastating destruction of human moral conscience.

In reality, the slave labor industry under the Chinese communist regime survives and grows with the international community’s collaboration. WOIPFG published two reports on November 7, 2003[4] and April 5, 2004[5] respectively, revealing the hidden slave labor production under the Chinese communist regime and its impact on international markets. In addition, WOIPFG submitted a report more than 10 years ago to the US government, requesting a ban on the import of certain products made by slave labor, however, our efforts were hampered. A great number of jobs in many countries, including some in the United States, have been lost to the slave labor industry in China, thus financially aiding the Chinese communist regime’s persecution of human rights. In other words, to keep a close watch on human rights issues in China, the international community not only has a moral obligation, but also directly affects its own economic interests and social security.

 

Table of Contents

Foreword

I. Policy level – the CCP’s Central Committee and the State Council attach great importance to the state slave labor industry, with the cooperation and support from the Ministry of Justice and state finances

II. Administration level – Unified administration by the CCP’s Central Committee, under the direct leadership of the CCP’s party and government officials

III. Summary of prison enterprises in 30 provinces and their production of slave labor products

1. Sichuan Heqiang Group Co., Ltd., which is under the jurisdiction of the Sichuan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau. It has at least 43 subsidiaries.

1) Sichuan Xinlei Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Leimaping Prison of Sichuan Province

2) Sichuan Miaoxi Co., Ltd., affiliated to Chuanxi Prison of Sichuan Province

3) Sichuan Hangteng Electronics Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Qiaowo Prison in Sichuan Province

2. Anhui Wanzhong Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Anhui Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 27 subsidiaries

1) Anhui Baihu Valve Factory Co., Ltd., affiliated to Lujiang Prison of Anhui Province

2) Anhui Baihu Agricultural Industry and Commerce Group Co., Ltd., under the jurisdiction of Baihu Prison Administration Branch Bureau, Xidawei New Prison District

3) Anhui Chaohu Foundry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Chaohu Prison of Anhui Province

4) Anhui Huateng Dyeing and Garment Co., Ltd., affiliated to Suzhou Prison of Anhui Province

5) Anhui Hefei Automotive Forging Co., Ltd., affiliated to Shushan Prison of Anhui Province

6) Anhui Baihu Farm Group Co., Ltd, Baihu Prison Administration Bureau of Anhui Province

3. Hunan Wan’anda Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Hunan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 25 subsidiaries

Hunan Xinyuan Cylinder Liner Co., Ltd. (formerly Hunan Cylinder Liner Factory), affiliated to Jinshi Prison of Hunan Province.

4. Hubei Chuyuan Group Co., Ltd., under the jurisdiction of the Hubei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has at least 41 prison enterprises (31 directly-controlled subordinate prisons and the Shayang Prison Administration Bureau of Hubei Province, which has 10 prisons under it, and the Shayang Prison Bureau General Hospital)

1) Hubei Chuyuan Shayang Farm Co., Ltd., affiliated to Shayang Prison Administration Bureau of Hubei Province

2) Hubei Xinsheng Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Hanyang Prison of Hubei Province

5. Jiangsu Fangyuan Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Jiangsu Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 27 wholly-owned subsidiaries (there’s some information indicating that it has 36 prison enterprises)

6. Guizhou Qianxin Enterprise Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Guizhou Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 46 major subsidiaries

1) Guizhou Zhangyuan Industry Co., Ltd., Pingba Prison of Guizhou Province

2) Guizhou Wuyue Machinery Co., Ltd., Wangwu Prison of Guizhou Province

3) Guizhou Tongren Yinhu Chemical Co., Ltd., Guizhou Province Datongla Prison

7. Yunnan Jinma Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Yunnan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 37 prison enterprises

1) Yunnan Jinma Group Jinma Metal Container Co., Ltd., affiliated to Guandu Prison of Yunnan Province

2) Yunnan Jinma Group Kunsheng Clothing Co., Ltd., affiliated to Yuanjiang Prison of Yunnan Province

8. Liaoning Zhenxing Industry Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Liaoning Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 34 prison enterprises

1) Liaoning Fushun Machine Tool Manufacturing Co., Ltd., formerly Fushun Machine Tool Factory of Liaoning Province, is affiliated to the First Prison of Fushun, Liaoning Province

2) Lingyuan Hongtong Garment Processing Co., Ltd., affiliated to Shenyang First Prison of Liaoning Province, has 18 prison enterprise subsidiaries

9-1. Xinjiang Huaxin Rui’an Group Co., Ltd. affiliated to the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Prison Administration, has 33 prison enterprises (including 11 other prison enterprises)

9-2. The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps Prison Administration Bureau has 11 prison enterprises

10. Hebei Lianyu Industrial Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Hebei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has at least 33 prison enterprises

Hebei Nanbao Salt Field Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Jidong Branch of Hebei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 8 prisons under its jurisdiction

11. Guangdong Guangyu Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Guangdong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 26 prisons and one police hospital under its jurisdiction

1) Liantang Industrial Company, Heyuan City, Guangdong Province, affiliated to Heyuan Prison   of Guangdong Province

2) Guangdong Binjiang Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Qingyuan Prison of Guangdong Province

12. Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Industrial Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau, has 26 prison enterprises

1) Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Group Hohhot First Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Hohhot First Prison

2) Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Group Hohhot Sixth Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Fifth Prison Area of Hohhot Second Prison, Inner Mongolia (Hohhot High-Security Prison)

3) Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Group Baotou Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Baotou Prison

4) Inner Mongolia Xinyi Brick Factory, affiliated to Salaqi Prison of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

13. Shanxi Zhenghua Industrial Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Shanxi Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 24 prison enterprises

Shanxi Xinye Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Co. Ltd., affiliated to Yuanping Prison in Shanxi Province

14. Shandong Province Qilu Xinhang Group Ltd., affiliated to Shandong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 15 branch companies (including 24 prison enterprises)

1) Shandong Qilu Motor Manufacturing Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Shandong Provincial Prison (which is a detention for male Falun Gong practitioners)

2) Shandong Jinan Power Generating Equipment Factory Co., Ltd. (JPEF), affiliated to Shandong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau

3) Shandong Lineng Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Lineng Sub-bureau of Shandong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau

4) Shandong Tianyi Optoelectronics Co., Ltd., affiliated to Lubei Prison of Shandong Province

15. Jilin Province Jixin Group Co. Ltd., affiliated to the Jilin Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 22 prison enterprises

Jilin Sifang Agriculture Co., Ltd. is under the jurisdiction of Jilin Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, Zhenlai Branch. It is known to the outside world as a company named Jilin Sifangtuozi Farm (Sifangtuozi Farm for short).

16. Guangxi Huasheng Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau, has 18 wholly-owned subsidiaries (some information indicates that there are 21 prison enterprises)

Liaoping Sugar Co., Ltd. of Guangxi Huasheng Group, affiliated to Litang Prison of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

17. Shanghai Shenyue Enterprise Development (Group) Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Shanghai Municipal Prison Administration Bureau, has 19 prison enterprises

1) Shanghai Longguang Economic and Trade Service Center, is affiliated to Shanghai Sichahe Prison

2) Shanghai Nanling Industry Corporation, affiliated to the Baimaoling Prison of Shanghai City

3) Shanghai Shenyue Garment Factory, affiliated to Qingpu Prison of Shanghai City, has 9 prison areas

18. Fujian Jinghong Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Fujian Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 20 prison entreprises

19. Heilongjiang Province Longyu Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Heilongjiang Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 19 prison enterprises

1) Qiqihar Tengcheng New Building Materials Factory, Qiqihar Prison of Heilongjiang Province

2) Heilongjiang Province Laolai Farm Co., Ltd., affiliated to Nehe Prison of Heilongjiang Province

20. Gansu Provincial Prison Enterprise Group, affiliated to Gansu Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 18 prison enterprises

1) Gansu Provincial Prison Enterprise Group’s Tianshui Machine Tool Co., Ltd., affiliated to Tianshui Prison of Gansu Province

2) Wuwei Liangzhou Carpet Co., Ltd., affiliated to the newly built Wuwei Prison

21. Zhejiang Donglian Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Zhejiang Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 17 prison enterprises

Zhejiang Dongbo Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Linhai Prison of Zhejiang Province

22. Shaanxi Province Yiqin Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Shaanxi Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 17 subsidiaries

1) Yan’an Fucai Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Yan’an Prison of Shaanxi Province

2) Shangzhenzi Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd. of Shaanxi Province Yiqin Group, affiliated to Huangling Prison of Shaanxi Province

23. The Beijing Municipal Prison Administration Bureau has 8 prisons, Qinghe Branch (6 prisons), 2 prison hospitals and 16 prison enterprises under its jurisdiction

Tianjin Zhixuan Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd., affiliated to Beijing Municipal Prison Administration Bureau Qinghe Branch, Liulin Prison

24. Henan Province Zhonglian Group Corporation, affiliated to Henan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 15 subsidiaries

1) Henan Yahao Electric Appliance Manufacturing Co., Ltd., affiliated to Yuzhong Prison of Henan Province
2) Luoyang Zhonglian Jianhua Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Luoyang Prison of Henan Province

25. Chongqing City Yujian Holdings (Group) Co., Ltd., affiliated to Chongqing Municipal Prison Administration Bureau, has 14 subsidiaries

1) Chongqing Jinmai Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Nanchuan Prison of Chongqing City

2) Chongqing Yujian Holdings Group’s Axle Manufacturing Co., Ltd., affiliated to Yudu Prison

3) Chongqing Dongyin Tianxin Trading Co., Ltd., under the jurisdiction of Dianjiang Prison

4) Chongqing Xinsheng Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Yongchuan Prison of Chongqing City

26. Jiangxi Provincial Prison Enterprise Group Corporation, affiliated to the Jiangxi Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 14 prisons

Jiangxi Jirui Trading Co., Ltd., affiliated to Ji’an Prison of Jiangxi Province

27. Qinghai Qingjiang Industrial Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Qinghai Provincial Prison Administration Bureau

Qinghai Xixin Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Xichuan Prison of Qinghai Province

28. Hainan Prison Enterprise Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Hainan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 8 prisons under its jurisdiction

29. Ningxia Ningshuo Industrial Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau, has 6 prison enterprises

1) Ningxia Xinhai’an Coast Garment Co., Ltd., affiliated to Ningxia Women’s Prison

2) Guanmahu Agriculture, Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Wuzhong Prison of Ningxia

30. Tianjin Tongbao Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Tianjin Municipal Prison Administration Bureau

 

I. Policy level – the CCP’s Central Committee and the State Council attach great importance to the state slave labor industry, with the cooperation and support from the Ministry of Justice and state finances

The CCP’s prison enterprises are state-owned industrial enterprises under the unified management of the CCP Central Committee and the State Council and are protected by the Communist Party’s laws. They are established according to the CCP’s so-called reform of criminals, while the state provides production facilities and operation management for them. The CCP’s prisons originally implemented the system of the “unification of prisons and enterprises”. In 2003, the CCP’s Ministry of Justice issued the Notice of the State Councils Instructional Advice to the Ministry of Justice regarding Experimental Work on Structural Reform of the Prison System (State Letter [2003] No. 15),[6] and implemented the “separation of prisons and enterprises”, with “the formation of new state-owned prison companies and subsidiaries or branches”. “Prison administration bureaus, prisons and prison enterprises set up internal structures, in accordance with the principles of streamlining, efficiency and uniformity.” The funds required for the various reforms in the process are “fully guaranteed” by the state.

Below are several screenshots of the Notice of the State Councils Instructional Advice to the Ministry of Justice regarding Experimental Work on Structural Reform of the Prison System and related information. [7]



Figure1.1 Screenshot of the Notice of the State Councils Instructional Advice to the Ministry of Justice regarding Experimental Work on Structural Reform of the Prison System and related information.



Figure1.2 Screenshot of the Notice of the State Councils Instructional Advice to the Ministry of Justice regarding Experimental Work on Structural Reform of the Prison System and related information.

Figure 1.3 Screenshot of the Notice of the State Councils Instructional Advice to the Ministry of Justice regarding Experimental Work on Structural Reform of the Prison System

 

II. Administration level – Unified administration by the CCP’s Central Committee, under the direct leadership of the CCP’s party and government officials

According to the regulations of the CCP’s Ministry of Justice, prison enterprises are state-owned and accept the unified leadership, supervision and administration of the CCP. The legal representatives of prison enterprises at all levels are communist party and government officials of all levels. It has formed a state slave labor industry managed in a highly militarized and unified fashion by the CCP, from its Central Committee to its grassroots levels. For example, in 2016, the Yunnan Provincial Department of Justice and the Yunnan Provincial Government jointly appointed Xia Xinjian as both the chairman of Yunnan Jinma Group Co., Ltd. and the director of the Yunnan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau (at the director level).[8] The general manager of Yunnan Jinma Group Co., Ltd. was Li Baotang, who was also deputy director of the Yunnan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau (at the deputy department level).[9]

Figure 2.1 Screenshot of Information on Xia Xinjian’s Appointment. December 14, 2016. Source: ThePaper.cn

Figure 2.2  Screenshot of Information on Li Baotang. Source: Baidu Baike.

 

Below are some examples to show that the legal representatives of some subsidiaries of Sichuan prison enterprise Sichuan Heqiang Group Co., Ltd. are also the CCP’s government officials.

 

According to partial statistics, among the 681 prison enterprises in 30 provinces, central government directly-controlled municipalities and autonomous regions in mainland China, the legal representatives of 432 prison enterprises which have been investigated by WOIPFG, are also the directors and deputy directors of their respective provincial prison administration bureaus. They also have other official positions such as prison wardens and deputy wardens. For more details, please refer to Appendix I List of Official Administrative Positions of Executives in 432 CCP Prison Enterprises. 
 

III. Summary of prison enterprises in 30 provinces and their production of slave labor products

As a result of the CCP’s unified policy directive, each of the provincial prison administration bureaus in China has set up the so-called group companies, and their subordinate prisons have also established their own subsidiary companies. According to the data collected by WOIPFG, as of today, at least 681 slave labor companies have been established by the prisons in 30 provinces, central government directly-controlled municipalities and autonomous regions in China (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Shanxi, Hunan, Jilin, Anhui, Hebei, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Henan, Liaoning, Dalian, Shandong, Jiangsu, Xinjiang, Zhejiang, Hubei, Shaanxi, Guangdong, Heilongjiang, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai and Hainan).

Among these 681 companies, many are large-scale state-owned key enterprises with large amounts of assets and many professional technicians. Their businesses include coal mining, industrial manufacturing and mechanical processing, as well as the production and processing of agricultural products, food, clothing and daily necessities. Their products are not only being sold in the Chinese domestic market, but they’re also exported around the world. Below is the information on the prison enterprises in 30 provinces, central government directly-controlled municipalities and autonomous regions. For more information, please refer to:

Appendix II List of Prison Enterprises in 30 Chinese Provinces, Central Government Directly-Controlled Municipalities and Autonomous Regions.


1. Sichuan Heqiang Group Co., Ltd.,[10]which is under the jurisdiction of the Sichuan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has at least 43 subsidiaries.

Legal representative of the prison company: Zeng Yongzhong, general manager[11], and

Communist party committee member and deputy warden of Sichuan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau.

Sichuan Heqiang Group Co., Ltd. was established in November 2011, and all of the 43 prisons in Sichuan incorporated their own subsidiary corporations, which are uniformly managed by Heqiang Group Co., Ltd. As of December 31, 2017, the total state-owned assets of the enterprises run by all prisons in Sichuan had reached 3.485 billion yuan, of which the state-owned capital totalled 1.47 billion yuan. There was an increase of 320 million yuan and a growth rate of 27.82% in comparison with the state-owned capital of 1.15 billion yuan when the company was initially founded.

Figure 3.1 Screenshot of Information on Sichuan Heqiang Group Co., Ltd.

Several subsidiaries of the company:

1) Sichuan Xinlei Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Leimaping Prison of Sichuan Province[12]

Legal representative of the prison company: Wang Yongquan, general manager of the company,  communist party committee member and deputy warden of Leimaping Prison.[13]

The prison has more than 1,100 CCP police guards and People’s Liberation Army soldiers, with the capacity to detain 100,000 people. The prison is located deep in the mountains at the junction of Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, at the borders shared by Leibo County (Liangshan Prefecture), Mabian County (Leshan City) and Pingshan County (Yibin City). Surrounded by 133 square kilometers of rolling hills, the prison has 230 detention sites on different hill tops and the highest hilltop site confines more than 23,000 inmates. In 2012, the prison moved to: 318 Le’e Road, Fuxi Town, Emeishan City, Sichuan Province.

Business scope: electronic equipment manufacturing; hydropower generation; housing services; textile and garment processing; manufacturing of construction materials, plastic products, daily commodities and household goods; retail of prepackaged foods and dairy products; and retail of cigarettes and cigars.

Figure 3.2  Frontal view of  Leimaping Prison of Sichuan Province

 

2) Sichuan Miaoxi Co., Ltd., affiliated to Chuanxi Prison of Sichuan Province[14]

Legal representative of the prison company: Deng Qiping, manager of Sichuan Miaoxi Co., Ltd.; communist party committee member, deputy warden and subsidiary company manager of Chuanxi Prison[15]

Chuanxi Prison has 860 policemen, 234 employees, and a capacity of detaining 5,000 to 6,000 prisoners. The prison engages in manufacturing of clothing, sweaters, leather shoes, electric heated blankets, and wine bottle holders, with an annual revenue of over 30 million yuan. It is located at Hongguang Village, Hong’an Town, Longquanyi District of Chengdu City, at the northern foot of Longquan Mountain, adjacent to the famous Ancient Hakka Luodai Town, and is 28 kilometers from the main urban area of Chengdu. The prison has convenient transportation and information transmission. With a total area of 143.3 acres, it is a medium-security large-scale prison which mainly detains criminals sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment.

Business scope: Manufacturing, processing and sales of garments, shoes, sweaters, electronic components; educational consulting services; sale of prepackaged foods.

Figure 3.3 Frontal view of  Chuanxi Prison

 

3) Sichuan Hangteng Electronics Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Qiaowo Prison in Sichuan Province[16]

Legal representative of the prison company: Zheng Wenbin, manager of Sichuan Hangteng Electronics Co., Ltd.; communist party committee member and deputy warden of Qiaowo Prison[17]

Qiaowo Prison of Sichuan Province has merged successively with more than a dozen labor camps, labor reformation units and local companies, including Xipu Military Farm, Tianquan Sulfur Mine, Ningnan Lead-Zinc Mine, Huatan Iron Mine, Xichang Mining Machinery Factory, Chengdu Power Plant, Siping Coal Mine, Asbestos Mine Employment Brigade, Xikou Mercury Mine, Wanqiu Farm, Xiong’er Farm, Second Brigade of Chuantie 415, Wuyi Lead Mine, Xiluo Farm and Liangshan Coal Mine. The prison has a total area of 42,000 acres, of which there is a grain farm of 3,500 acres, an orchard of 3,000 acres, a mulberry field of 5,000 acres, and a forest of 17,000 acres. In November 2009, in accordance with the planning requirements of the Ministry of Justice on the adjustment of prison layout, the Qiaowo prison was implemented for reconstruction and expansion. On January 15, 2014, the prison was moved for a second time to a new location at Lizhou Town. The prison enterprise mainly produces and processes electronic products, clothing and knitwear, shoes and hats, woven products, lights, gems, handicrafts, paper products and toys.

Business scope: Production of electronics, garments and knitwear, shoes and hats, bags and cases, lighting products, gems, and crafts; paper product and toy processing; leasing; catering; hotel services.

Figure 3.4 Entrance to Qiaowo Prison of Sichuan Province

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.1 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Sichuan Province.)

 

2. Anhui Wanzhong Group Co., Ltd.[18], affiliated to the Anhui Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 27 subsidiaries

Legal representative of the prison company: Xu Xiaogang, Chairman of the company and Director of the Anhui Provincial Prison Administration Bureau.[19]

The company’s registered capital is 443.469 million yuan. Its total assets amounted to 1.5 billion yuan. Founded in December 1996, it has 19 wholly-owned subsidiaries (other information indicates that it has 27 prison enterprises) spreading out in 11 cities and counties in the province, with more than 7,000 regular workers and 47,000 prisoners. Its main products include railway sleeper fasteners, medium and low-pressure valves, automotive forgings, power accessories, textiles and garments, cement and building materials, specialty agricultural products, various types of labor processing products and hotel catering and other tertiary industry services.

In 2007, the group realized an operating income of 1.44 billion yuan and a profit of 82 million yuan, and it paid taxes of 70.9 million yuan. Its total profit and taxes were 156 million yuan. At present, 14 companies within this group have earned the ISO9000 quality system certification; two companies have won the Quality Management Award of the Ministry of Justice (Baifa and Wuying), and four enterprises have won provincial quality management awards (Chaozhu, Baifa, Baihu and Wuying). Among their products, there is one national inspection-free product (Baihu), seven “Anhui Famous Brand” products, and six provincial excellent products.

 

 

Figure 3.5 Screenshot of Information on Anhui Wanzhong Group Co., Ltd. (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

 

Several subsidiaries of Anhui Wanzhong Group Co., Ltd.:

1) Anhui Baihu Valve Factory Co., Ltd., affiliated to Lujiang Prison of Anhui Province[20]

Legal representative of the prison company: Li Zhengquan, General Manager of Anhui Baihu Valve Factory Co., Ltd.[21]

Anhui Baihu Valve Factory Co., Ltd. (formerly known as Anhui Baihu Valve Factory) is one of the largest valve manufacturers in China. It is under the jurisdiction of the Lujiang Prison of Anhui Province, and is a high-security, ministerial-level modern prison. This company is the governing unit of the China Valve Industry Association, a provincial technology center and a key export enterprise of Anhui Province. It covers an area of 1.05 million square meters, with assets of more than 100 million yuan, more than 1,200 employees and nearly 400 professional and technical personnel. The company has eight departments, five subsidiaries, three branch factories and four directly affiliated workshops. The company currently has three of the most advanced resin sand molding production lines, two of the most advanced spray coating production lines, and a first-class valve testing equipment in China. The company is capable of producing over 10,000 tons of mid- and low-pressure valves per year. Its main products are the “Baihu” brand valves with nominal pressure under 4.0 MPa, including brake valves, globe valves, check valves, butterfly valves, ball valves and drain valves, resilient seated gate valves with a total of seven major series, over 100 models and over 1,000 specifications. The products have nominal flow diameters between 15 and 2,000 millimeters. They are driven manually, electrically, by wheel gear or by worm gear. These products are widely used in petroleum, chemicals, metallurgy, electric power, construction and other industries, as well as urban water supply and drainage systems.

Business scope: medium and low pressure valves, pump parts, mechanical products production and sale; garment processing. It mainly produces the British Standard, American Standard and other series of valves. It is authorized to import and export independently, and its products have been exported to more than 60 countries and regions such as the United States, Britain and Japan, and are used by many Chinese domestic enterprises to “replace imported products”.

Figure 3.6 Main Building of Anhui Baihu Valve Factory Co., Ltd.

 

2) Anhui Baihu Agricultural Industry and Commerce Group Co., Ltd.,[22] under the jurisdiction of Baihu Prison Administration Branch Bureau, Xidawei New Prison District

Legal representative of the prison company: Lin Jing, company manager and Deputy Director of the Baihu Prison Administration Branch Bureau of Anhui Province.[23]

Formerly known as Baihu Farm of Anhui Province, the company was established in 1953 and was restructured in 1998 into a wholly state-owned company. It covers an area of 162 square kilometers, with an area of 146,000 acres of arable land and 3,000 acres of farmable water. The company has assets of 232 million yuan. It has emerged as an enterprise group based on agriculture and processing, supplemented with the tertiary industry.

The company’s main agricultural products are rice, wheat, swine and aquatic products; its main industrial businesses are rice processing, refrigerator part and casting processing, as well as garment and building material processing. It processes more than 10,000 tons of rice every year. The company consists of eight farms and supporting grain and oil trading companies (fine rice processing plants), seed companies, breeding companies, forestry companies, supply and marketing companies, electromechanical companies, agricultural technology service centers and agricultural demonstration parks. It has formed an integrated industrial management system with pre-production, production and post-production.

In 2009, the company’s total grain output was 90,048 tons, including 70,832 tons of rice, 10,021 tons of high-quality rice and wheat varieties, 25,700 tons of high-quality processed rice, and 10,045 commercial hogs. 3,340 farming households were employed by the company in the form of order farming, household contracting, order acquisition and general hiring. In 2010, it was estimated that the company’s total grain output would be 90,000 tons, and the production and marketing of rice and wheat varieties would be 15,000 tons. The production and sale of high-quality rice would be 35,000 tons, and the number of commercial hogs would be 11,000 in the same year. Therefore, the sales revenue was estimated to be 450 million yuan and the after-tax profit would be 40 million yuan. The location of the enterprise is: Baihu Town, Lujiang County, Anhui Province.

Figure 3.7 Screenshot of Information on Anhui Baihu Agricultural Industry and Commerce Group Co., Ltd. Source: Baidu Baike.

 

3) Anhui Chaohu Foundry Co., Ltd.,[24] affiliated to Chaohu Prison of Anhui Province

Legal representative of the prison company: Shi Lei,[25] General Manager and the Head of Chaohu Prison[26]

Founded in 1959, the company is now a large-scale state enterprise and a key enterprise in the national machinery industry. It is a designated professional factory and test base for the production of railway fasteners by the Ministry of Railways.

The company’s net assets are 200 million yuan. It can produce railway fasteners, ballast fasteners, height adjustment fasteners, bridge line fasteners, large gauge adjustment fasteners, large axle heavy duty special iron wire fasteners, urban rail transit series fasteners, high-duty series of fasteners and various types of pre-stressed concrete sleepers, as well as dynamic pits without foundation pits, ordinary lathes, engraving machines, material handling equipment, cement and other products. Now it has an annual output of 11,000 tons of various types of cast iron parts, 30,000 tons of cold and hot stamping parts, 5 million sets of high-duty fasteners and 400,000 pre-stressed reinforced concrete sleepers.

Figure 3.8  Screenshot of Information on Anhui Chaohu Foundry Co., Ltd.  (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

 

4) Anhui Huateng Dyeing and Garment Co., Ltd.,[27] affiliated to Suzhou Prison of Anhui Province

Legal representative of the prison company: Wang Daomin, General Manager of the company and Deputy Warden of Suzhou Prison of Anhui Province.[28]

The company was founded in the early 1950s. Located in Suzhou City in the northern plains of Anhui Province. The Beijing-Shanghai Railway, the Hefei-Xuzhou Highway and the 206 National Road cross through the city. It is adjacent to Xuzhou Guanyin Airport in the north. Its geographical location is superior with convenient transportation. The company’s total assets are 50 million yuan. The company is mainly engaged in the processing of yarn-dyed fabrics and garments. It is currently the largest yarn-dyed fabric manufacturer in Anhui Province and a member of the National Color-dye Industry Association. The company has now formed a dyed fabric production system integrating dyeing, beam-warping, weaving, finishing and processing, and a garment processing system that integrates garment cutting, sewing and ironing. Currently, it has rapier loom machines and complete sets of equipment for dyeing, beam-warping and finishing fabrics. There are 340 imported high-speed sewing machines, 10 garment processing production lines, and sewage treatment facilities for daily treatment of 2,600 tons of industrial sewage. Its annual production and processing capacity are 5 million meters of dyed fabrics, 2,400 tons of dyed yarns, and 12 million meters of finished products being further processed. Its main products are medium-to-high-grade yarn-dyed fabrics such as cotton, hemp and chemical fibers. The company produces jacquard cloths, seersucker cloths, polyester-cotton cloths, poplin cloths and flannel cloths. Its apparel production undertakes a variety of civil clothing processing of 600,000 pieces (sets) per year.

Figure 3.9 Screenshot of Information on Anhui Huateng Dyeing and Garment Co., Ltd.  (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

 

5) Anhui Hefei Automotive Forging Co., Ltd.[29], affiliated to Shushan Prison of Anhui Province

Legal representative of the prison company: Tao Shanhu, General Manager of the company and Deputy Secretary of the Communist Party Committee in Shushan Prison of Anhui Province.[30]

Founded in 1974, the company covers an area of 170,000 square meters and is one of the major domestic manufacturers of automotive and diesel forgings. The company has strong technical strengths and well-equipped testing methods. It has five national advanced forging production lines with automobile front axle precision-integral die forging and semi-shaft casing extrusion molding. It also has many large-scale equipment such as 6300KN, 10000KN, 16000KN, 25000KN friction presses, pendulum mills and EDM machines. It can manufacture six series of products of internal combustion engine connecting rods, steam (fork) truck axles, front axles, steering and semi-axle casings, with a total annual production capacity of 15,000 tons. The company’s products are supplied to more than ten manufacturers including Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Co., Ltd., Nanjing Automotive (Group) Corporation and Anhui Ankai Automobile Co., Ltd.

Figure 3.10 Screenshot of Information on Anhui Hefei Automotive Forging Co., Ltd.  (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

 

6) Anhui Baihu Farm Group Co., Ltd[31], Baihu Prison Administration Bureau of Anhui Province

Representative and official positions of the prison enterprise: Xu Wei, General Manager of Anhui Baihu Farm Group Co., Ltd.; Deputy Secretary of the Communist Party Committee of Baihu Prison Administration Bureau of Anhui Province[32]

Baihu Prison Administration Bureau of Anhui Province[33] is a national large-scale prison farm. It is located in the territory of Lujiang County, Hefei City. In 1953, it was built on the land reclaimed from a lake, with a total area of 162 square kilometers. It has 47 prison areas and more than 4,500 in-service policemen and staff members. In the past 50 years, it has detained over 300,000 people and produced more than 2.1 million tons of crops.

It is located in Lujiang County, Hefei City, Anhui Province. East of Wuhu City, it covers an area of 162 square kilometers, 146,000 acres of arable land, more than 10,000 acres of water area and is divided into East Dawei and West Dawei (embankment). There are 45,000 people within its jurisdiction.[34]

Business areas: Production, processing and sale of grains, oil and local special products; livestock and poultry, aquatic product breeding, processing and sales; production and sale of trees, agricultural machinery, castings, electrical appliances, building materials, daily necessities, tobacco and alcohol; clothing manufacturing and sales, customer-supplied material and sample processing, ball processing; sweater processing; aluminum alloy processing; building engineering design and construction; water and electric installation and decoration engineering; planting and sale of forest trees; production and sale of rice and wheat seeds; accommodation, catering and communication services.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.2 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Anhui Province.)


3. Hunan Wan’anda Group Co., Ltd.,[35] affiliated to Hunan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 25 subsidiaries

Legal representative of the prison company: Zhong Yibing, Chairman of Hunan Wan’anda Group Corporation; Communist Party Committee member and deputy director of the Department of Justice of Hunan Province, as well as the Communist Party Committee Secretary and Director of the Hunan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau

The group enterprise has total assets of 1.2 billion yuan with more than 15,000 employees.

The company’s operating projects mainly include special motors, special vehicles and parts, machinery and equipment manufacturing, cement and building materials, mining, Chinese and Western medicines, food and condiments, clothing, constructional engineering design, construction and installation, processing of incoming materials, as well as the production, processing and marketing of farming products, animal husbandry and aquatic products. Its auxiliary businesses are engaged in service industries such as hotels, commerce, warehousing, real estate development, imports and exports, logistics and property management. The group companies have formed a comprehensively developed industrial structure, in which its base is the traditional industries, and its leading front is high-tech industries. Its main business is machinery manufacturing, and its key focus is the processing industry, plus the service industry. During the 10th Five-Year Plan period, the company’s average annual growth rate reached 19.1%. By 2005, the sales revenue exceeded 1.3 billion yuan and its profit reached 60 million yuan. At present, 12 companies in the group have acquired the ISO9000 certification, and two companies have GMP certification, GSP certification and QS certification respectively.

Figure 3.11 Screenshot of Information on Hunan Wan’anda Group Co., Ltd.

 

Example of the company’s subsidiaries:

Hunan Xinyuan Cylinder Liner Co., Ltd. (formerly Hunan Cylinder Liner Factory), affiliated to Jinshi Prison of Hunan Province.

Legal representative of the prison company: Yin Limin, Communist Party Member, Secretary and Warden of Jinshi Prison

The company is located in the northwest region of Hunan Province and at the junction of Hunan and Hubei Provinces. Founded in the 1960s, the company is the main designated enterprise of the Hunan Provincial Machinery Department, and it is also the leading professional manufacturer of internal combustion engine cylinder liners in China. The company has more than 1,200 employees and more than 260 professional and technical personnel, and it covers an area of 170,000 square meters. It produces an annual output of more than 4 million cylinders made of various materials, such as nickel-molybdenum-copper alloy, boron alloy, boron-copper alloy and chrome-molybdenum-copper alloy bainite. The products can meet the emission requirements of Euro III and above. The company is the main regulation setting work unit of the national laser cylinder liner industry standards according to “Technical Conditions for Laser Quenching Cylinder Liner of Internal Combustion Engine” (JB/T10406-2004), and it is the new prototype production base of cylinder liner products of Shanghai Internal Combustion Engine Research Institute.[36]

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.3 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Hunan Province.)

 

4. Hubei Chuyuan Group Co., Ltd.[37], under the jurisdiction of the Hubei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[38], has at least 41 prison enterprises (31 directly-controlled subordinate prisons and the Shayang Prison Administration Bureau of Hubei Province, which has 10 prisons under it, and the Shayang Prison Bureau General Hospital)

Legal representative of the prison company: Jiang Guoping, Chairman of Hubei Chuyuan Group Co., Ltd., Member of the Communist Party Committee and Deputy Director of the Hubei Provincial Department of Justice, Communist Party Secretary and Director of Hubei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau.[39]

The Hubei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau has jurisdiction over the Shayang Prison Administration Bureau of Hubei Province and 31 prisons (including one women’s prison and one juvenile prison. Among them, there are three deputy department-level prisons: Xiangbei, Xiangnan and Jiangbei). In 2003, with the approval from the CCP’s State Council, in accordance with the “Guiding Opinions on the Prison System Reform Pilot Work” from the CCP’s Ministry of Justice, the Hubei Chuyuan Group Co., Ltd. was established. The province has nearly 60,000 prisoners year-round, including more than 2,700 female prisoners and more than 1,000 juvenile offenders. The province’s prison system has a total land area of more than 560,000 acres. At present, there are more than 10,000 registered policemen and over 6,000 retired policemen within the prison system.

Business areas: Exercising the functions of an investor in the state-owned assets within the scope of authorization; managing, investing and operating capital in accordance with the CCP’s relevant laws, regulations and policies; production and sale of grain, cotton, oil, livestock, poultry, aquatic products, wood and flowers; industrial and residential construction engineering design, building construction and decoration, plumbing and electrical installation; property management; house leasing; warehousing and logistics; providing labor services

Examples of the company’s subsidiaries:

1) Hubei Chuyuan Shayang Farm Co., Ltd., affiliated to Shayang Prison Administration Bureau of Hubei Province[40]

Legal representative of the prison company: Wang Siming, General Manager of Hubei Chuyuan Shayang Farm Co., Ltd.

The Shayang Prison Administration Bureau of Hubei Province was founded on August 13, 1952 and is located in the central north part of the Jianghan Plain and the banks of the lower reaches of the Han River, where the cities and counties called Qianjiang, Tianmen, Zhongxiang, Shayang and Jingshan are located. The land area under the bureau’s jurisdiction is 2,200 square kilometers, and the land area covered by its prisons is 230 square kilometers, of which 11,333.3 hectares are arable land. The Shayang Prison Administration Bureau has jurisdiction over 10 prisons, namely Shayang Guanghua Prison, Shayang Xiaojianghu Prison, Shayang Hehuayuan Prison,  Shayang Zhanghuyuan Prison, Shayang Xiongwangtai Prison, Shayang Fanjiatai Prison, Shayang Hanjin Prison, Shayang Chenjiashan Prison, Shayang Changlin Prison and Shayang Pinghu Prison. The organs of the Shayang Prison Administration Bureau are located at Hongyan Road, Shayang County, Jingmen City, Hubei Province. There is also an internal hospital, the Shayang Prison Bureau General Hospital. The Shayang Farm (now Shayang Prison Administration Bureau), headquartered in Shayang District, is one of the country’s largest labor reform farms.[41]

Business areas: Planting and sale of crops; farming and sale of aquatic products, livestock and poultry; sale of pesticides, seeds, fertilizers and agricultural machinery; technology development in the field of agricultural science and technologies; technical consulting, technical services and technology transfer; rice processing and sale; sale of agricultural and sideline products, prepackaged foods, alcohol, cigarettes; edible salt retail; sale of daily necessities, office supplies, communication equipment, labor insurance products; processing and sale of clothing and electronic products; land leveling; water conservancy and hydropower engineering construction; cargo distribution and transportation; house leasing

2) Hubei Xinsheng Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Hanyang Prison of Hubei Province

Legal representative of the prison company: Wan Wenyao, General Manager of Hubei Xinsheng Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., Hanyang Prison’s Communist Party Committee member.[42]

Hanyang Prison is located on the outskirts of Wuhan and the Han River.[43] Established in July 1951, it covers an area of ​​1,200 acres, and has fixed assets of 34.48 million yuan. It has 477 policemen, 302 employees, 13 departments, 24 prison units, one special police brigade and a hospital. There are more than 2,100 detainees in this prison year-round, and it is a high-security prison for detaining felons. The prison was originally called “Hanyang Xinsheng Brick and Tile Factory” and was directly under the former Ministry of Public Security of the Central Military Commission. It was renamed several times. In 1995, it was renamed “Hanyang Prison of Hubei Province”.

Address: 1 Yuanjiatai, Qinduankou Street, Hanyang District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China[44]

Business areas: garment processing; electronic product processing; machinery processing; paper packaging and product processing

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.4 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Hubei Province.)

5. Jiangsu Fangyuan Group Co., Ltd.,[45] affiliated to the Jiangsu Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 27 wholly-owned subsidiaries (there’s some information indicating that it has 36 prison enterprises)

Legal representative of the prison company: Jiang Jinbing, Chairman of the company, Deputy Secretary of the Communist Party Committee and Deputy Director of the Jiangsu Provincial Department of Justice; Secretary of the Communist Party Committee and Director of the Provincial Prison Administration[46]

Located in Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Fangyuan Group Co., Ltd. is a large-scale state-owned enterprise group that integrates agricultural, industrial and trade businesses. It was established and funded in 1996 by the provincial government.

The company currently owns assets of 3.5 billion yuan, more than 8,000 mid-level and senior-level professional and technical personnel and lands of 476,000 acres. It has 27 wholly-owned subsidiaries, including 6 large-scale industrial enterprises, 12 medium-sized enterprises and 3 large-scale farms, which are scattered throughout Jiangsu Province. Its major industrial enterprises are located in the economically developed Yangtze River Delta and the core cities on the Xu-Lian Economic Belt, with convenience in transportation and well-equipped infrastructure. Its main industrial products include cement, press machines, bearings, heavy machinery, machine tools and their accessories and high-grade sanitary wares. Among them, the “Double Monkey” brand of cement, the “Global” brand of press machines, Z3035B× Armed Drilling Machines and the Jinniu brand of denim have won the National Silver Award; the “Double Monkey” brand of cement and the “Global” brand of press machines were also selected as Jiangsu’s provincial brand-name products. Its agricultural products are mainly crops such as rice, wheat, cotton, seeds, tea leaves and processed rice and flour.

Figure 3.13. Main building of Jiangsu Fangyuan Group Co., Ltd.

Figure 3.14 Screenshot of Information on Jiangsu Fangyuan Group Co., Ltd. (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.5 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Jiangsu Province.)

 

6. Guizhou Qianxin Enterprise Group Co., Ltd.,[47] affiliated to Guizhou Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 46 major subsidiaries[48]

Legal representative of the prison company: Wu Daoming,[49] Director of Guizhou Fuxin Enterprise Group Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee Member and Deputy Director of Guizhou Provincial Prison Administration Bureau.

Business areas: Operation, management and investment of state-owned assets; corporate custody; asset restructuring and physical leasing

Several of the company’s subsidiaries:

1) Guizhou Zhangyuan Industry Co., Ltd., Pingba Prison[50] of Guizhou Province

Legal representative of the prison company: Ma Lin,[51] General Manager of Guizhou Zhangyuan Industry Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee Member and Deputy Warden of Pingba Prison.

Pingba Prison[52] is located by the Hongfeng Lake. It was built on August 17, 1951, covering an area of ​​more than 22,000 acres. In April 2010, it was changed to a medium-security prison to detain male criminals, who have been sentenced to imprisonment for more than five years and less than 18 years. The prison is capable to detain 3,000 people. The prison has 24 sections and departments, 6 prison areas and one hospital, as well as 443 in-service police guards and 117 employees. During 61 years after its establishment, it detained over 26,700 criminals.

Business areas: Customer-supplied material processing, land development, land leasing, site equipment leasing, gardening, horticulture, technical training, accommodation, catering; tobacco retail; consignment sale of daily necessities and clothing.

2) Guizhou Wuyue Machinery Co., Ltd., Wangwu Prison[53] of Guizhou Province

Legal representative of the prison company: Ran Maoliang,[54] General Manager of Guizhou Wuyue Machinery Co., Ltd., Deputy Warden of Wangwu Prison.

Located at 37 Songhuajiang Road, Economic and Technological Development Zone in Guiyang City, Wangwu Prison is close to the city center and has convenient transportation. It was founded in 1958 and is a high-security prison. It is the prison with the largest number of police guards and prisoners in Guizhou Province.

Business areas: Mechanical processing; customer-supplied processing; production and sale of building materials and clothing; Labor services; site leasing; house leasing; storage leasing; sale of clothing, machinery, tobacco (retail only), daily necessities; and business management.

Figure 3.15 Screenshot of Information on Guizhou Wuyue Machinery Co., Ltd., Wangwu Prison.

3) Guizhou Tongren Yinhu Chemical Co., Ltd.,[55] Guizhou Province Datongla Prison[56]

Legal representative of the prison company: Tian Maozhang,[57] Manager of Guizhou Tongren Yinhu Chemical Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee Member and Deputy Warden of Dadongla Prison.

Dadongla Prison of Guizhou Province is located at 76 Daqing South Road, Bijiang District, Tongren City, Guizhou Province. It was first established in 1951. The local state-owned Tongren Mercury Mine of Guizhou Province was established in 1954. After years of changes, in the end, its name was changed to “Dadongla Prison of Guizhou Province” in 1995, with the approval of the Guizhou Provincial Prison Administration Bureau. The prison includes 21 functional departments and a labor union, a Youth League committee and a prison association. It used to have four prison areas (currently three). The prison is a county-level work unit with more than 3,500 police guards and employees. It used to be the second largest mercury production base in China and was one of the top 500 state enterprises. Its products are sold within China and abroad.

 

Figure 3.16 Screenshot of Information on Dadongla Prison of Guizhou Province

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.6 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Guizhou Province.)

 

7. Yunnan Jinma Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Yunnan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 37 prison enterprises

Legal representatives of the prison company:

Xia Xinjian,[58] Board Chairman of Yunnan Jinma Group Co., Ltd.; Director of Yunnan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau (department level)

Li Yutang,[59] General manager of Yunnan Jinma Group Co., Ltd., Deputy Director of the Yunnan Prison Administration.

Business areas: Sale of mechanical products and accessories, internal combustion engines and parts/accessories, machine tools and parts/accessories, electromechanical devices and parts/accessories, automobiles (excluding sedans) and parts/accessories, agricultural machinery products and accessories, metal products, mining equipment and accessories, chemical products, subsidiary agricultural products, rubber products, electronic products and accessories, and building materials; processing of garment, shoes and hats; architectural assembly and decoration; real estate development; property management

On September 4, 1995, the former Yunnan Labor Reformation Bureau was renamed Yunnan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, with its structural framework remaining the same, according to the CCP’s “Prison Law” and a notice from the Ministry of justice. The incumbent director of the bureau is Xia Xinjian[60]. Address: 138 Cuihu South Road, Wuhua District, Kunming City, Yunnan Province.

Examples of the prison enterprise subsidiaries:

1) Yunnan Jinma Group Jinma Metal Container Co., Ltd., affiliated to Guandu Prison of Yunnan Province
Legal representative of the prison company: Bao Zhaokun, General manager of Yunnan Jinma Group Jinma Metal Container Co., Ltd.,Communist Party Committee Member and Deputy Warden of Guandu Prison[61].

Business areas: Metal container manufacturing and sale; greenhouse shed and metal part manufacturing and installation; iron bed, clothing, luggage production and processing; machining; warehousing services.

Guandu Prison of Yunnan Province was built in 1984. It detains more than 5,000 inmates.[62] Address: Dabanqiao Town, Guandu District, Kunming City, Yunnan Province
2) Yunnan Jinma Group Kunsheng Clothing Co., Ltd., affiliated to Yuanjiang Prison of Yunnan Province

Legal representative of the prison company: A Qingzheng, Deputy Warden of Yuanjiang Prison[63]
Business areas: Processing of clothing, hats, cases, luggage and bags; constructional installation; decoration services; labor service export; property management; real estate brokerage services.

Yuanjiang Prison of Yunnan Province[64] (Yuanjiang Farm of Yunnan Province) was built in 1954, located in Yuanjiang County, with a total area of over 18,000 acres, including 9,600 acres of arable land and nearly 1,000 inmates and prison guards. The prison has nearly 30 departments, including a political department, the office, a trade union and the prison management department and 10 grass-roots units under their jurisdiction. It established a copper mine in 1995, by using purchased copper resources for a fixed period of time. It completed a power station in 1997, participated in the construction of the wired broadband integrated information trunk network from Dali to Zhongdian in 1999, and established a jasmine tea factory in 2001. Starting from 2004, it has been conducting its flower cultivation business. It focuses on indoor processing, while having land rental, fruit cultivation, flower cultivation and scented tea processing as its supplementary businesses.

Address: North section of Yongle Avenue, Kunyang Neighborhood, Jinning County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.7 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Yunnan Province.)

 

8. Liaoning Zhenxing Industry Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Liaoning Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 34 prison enterprises

Its previous name was Liaoning Province Prison Enterprise Group Co., Ltd., which was renamed Liaoning Zhenxing Industry Group Co., Ltd. in August 2017.[65]
Legal representatives of the prison company and their official positions in the prison system:

Yao Xishuang,[66] general manager of Liaoning Province Prison Enterprise Group Co., Ltd. and deputy secretary of the Communist Party Committee of the Liaoning Province Justice Department, as well as the Communist Party Committee Secretary and Director of the Liaoning Provincial Prison Administration Bureau

Zhou Zhanjie, deputy general manager of Liaoning Zhenxing Industry Group Co., Ltd.

Examples of the company’s prison enterprise subsidiaries:

1) Liaoning Fushun Machine Tool Manufacturing Co., Ltd.,[67] formerly Fushun Machine Tool Factory of Liaoning Province, is affiliated to the First Prison of Fushun, Liaoning Province

Legal representative of the prison company: Shang Guangshan, General Manager of the company,

Secretary of the Communist Party Committee and the Governor of First Prison of Fushun, Liaoning Province.[68]

Founded in 1949, the company has been manufacturing machine tool products since 1958. It is a key enterprise in the machine tool industry, with its major products being slotting machines, shaping machines and contouring presses. It is currently the only professional manufacturer of series slotting machines in China. Its main product types are: B50125, B50100, B5080, BA5063, B5050A, B5040, B5032, B5020, B5020D, B5016, B5012. These are series of slotting machines and special slotting machines for active wrenches. They also manufacture BC6063 and B60100 shaping machines, as well as J95K-30 (CNC) and J95F-6.3 (digital display) profiled stepping presses, X2016 Gantry milling machines, B2016A double housing planers and digitally-controlled turning machines. Covering an area of 280,000 square meters, the prison enterprise has fixed assets of more than 70 million yuan and more than 500 sets of major production equipment. Among them, there are more than 250 sets of metal cutting equipment, 10 sets of casting equipment, 25 sets of forging equipment, 40 sets of hoisting equipment, 16 sets of heat treatment equipment, 8 sets of electroplating equipment and 34 sets of major transportation equipment.

Address: 36 Ningyuan Street, Shuncheng District, Fushun City

Figure 3.17. Main building of Liaoning Fushun Machine Tool Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Figure 3.18 Screenshot of Information on Liaoning Fushun Machine Tool Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

2) Lingyuan Hongtong Garment Processing Co., Ltd., affiliated to Shenyang First Prison of Liaoning Province, has 18 prison enterprise subsidiaries

Legal representative of the prison company: Liu Guiman, general manager of Lingyuan Hongtong Garment Processing Co., Ltd[69].,Warden of Lingyuan Fifth Prison.

Address: Heigou Village, Wanyuandian Town, Lingyuan City (Lingyuan)

Business areas: Garment processing; weaving product processing; luggage production; shoe material, ball material, arts and crafts processing; wood processing; auto part manufacturing and sale; electrical equipment, hardware, building materials sewing equipment and part sales; plastic product processing.

Shenyang First Prison is located at 3 Yuxin Road, Yuhong District, Shenyang City. It was rebuilt by the merger of the former Shenyang First, Third and Fifth Prisons, and the entire new prison was relocated to the Shenyang Prison City on October 21, 2003. The new prison covers an area of 245,000 square meters and mainly detains prisoners, who have been sentenced to 10-15 years in prison. It is a maximum-security prison. It has 20 departments 23 prison areas, 4 directly controlled organs and 18 prison enterprises and companies.[70]

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.8 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Liaoning Province.)

9-1. Xinjiang Huaxin Rui’an Group Co., Ltd. affiliated to the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Prison Administration, has 33 prison enterprises (including 11 other prison enterprises)

Legal representative of the prison company: Fan Jun, Chairman of Xinjiang Huaxin Rui’an Group Co., Ltd., Deputy Director of the Department of Justice of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region; Communist Party Committee Secretary and Director of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau[71]


9-2. The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps Prison Administration Bureau has 11 prison enterprises

The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps Prison Administration Bureau[72] is located at 74 Stadium Road, Tianshan District, Urumqi City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It is the prison administration bureau of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. The bureau has a disciplinary inspection committee (working in cooperation with the Supervision Office), Department of Political Affairs (including the personnel department, police guard department, and publicity and education department), the administration office, the agency office (the communist party committee), Department of Science and Technology Information, Department of Penalty and Enforcement, Department of Education Reform, Department of Prison Administration, Department of Prison Enterprise, Department of Policies and Regulations, Department of Planning and Financial Equipment, Department of Life and Health, the Audit Department, the Information Command Center and other working institutions.[73]

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.9-1 and Appendix 2.9-2 for lists of prison enterprises that use slave labor in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.)
 

10. Hebei Lianyu Industrial Group Co., Ltd.[74], affiliated to the Hebei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has at least 33 prison enterprises
Legal representatives of the prison company and their official positions in the prison system:

Liu Jianmin, Chairman of Hebei Lianyu Industrial Group Co., Ltd.; Deputy Party Committee Secretary and Deputy Director of the Department of Justice of Hebei Province; Party Committee Secretary and Director of the Hebei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[75].

Hou Baochen, General Manager of Hebei Lianyu Industrial Group Co., Ltd.; Deputy Director of the Hebei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau.

The Hebei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau has 23 prisons and juvenile correctional facilities, in addition to the Jidong Branch of Hebei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau (overseeing 8 prisons) and two provincial criminal transfer stations,[76] there are also 11 functional departments/offices in the bureau.

An example of the company’s prison enterprises:
Hebei Nanbao Salt Field Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Jidong Branch of Hebei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 8 prisons under its jurisdiction

Legal representative of the prison company: Hao Shuanji, General Manager of Hebei Nanbao Salt Field Co., Lt., Director of Jidong Branch of Hebei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[77]

The Jidong Branch of Hebei Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[78] was established in March 1956. At that time, it was called the Hebei First Labor Reform Corps. In 1990, it was upgraded to a deputy department-level unit. In May 1995, it was renamed Jidong Prison of Hebei Province. In August 2011, Jidong Branch was formally established. The branch is located in Nanbao Economic Development Zone, Caofeidian District, Tangshan City, Hebei Province. It has eight prisons under its jurisdiction and is the largest detention facility in Hebei Province, as well as the unit with the largest population of detainees in the province.

Business areas: Crude salt production; sale of salt chemical products; processing of customer-supplied materials; house leasing. The following are operated by its branch companies: production of bromine and bromine series of products; potassium chloride, anhydrous sodium sulfate; manufacturing of anhydrous nitrate, magnesium chloride, halogen blocks and sodium fertilizers; processing of non-load-bearing hollow blocks and other small cement products; garment processing; training and review training of major responsible persons of municipal enterprise and its production and business units outside the high-risk industries, and municipal enterprise and its high-risk industry production and operation units (excluding fireworks and firecrackers production units) safety production management personnel and special operations personnel, production and management (wholesale) enterprises of fireworks, warehouse custodians and guards.

Address: Nanbao Economic Development Zone, Caofeidian District, Tangshan City, Hebei Province

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.10 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Hebei Province.)

 

11. Guangdong Guangyu Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Guangdong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 26 prisons and one police hospital under its jurisdiction

Legal representative of the prison company: Li Jingyan, Chairman of Guangdong Guangyu Group Co., Ltd.,Communist Party Committee Member of Guangdong Provincial Department of Justice; Communist Party Committee Secretary and Director of Guangdong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[79]

Guangdong Guangyu Group Co., Ltd. was built in July 1951, and it is located in Yujiao Town, Jiedong District, Jieyang City, Guangdong Province. It adopted its current name in May 1995. From 1993 to 2006, the prison fully implemented its “two strategic transfers” (which are the transformation from the field agricultural production to in-prison industrial production in terms of its industrial structure and the transfer from its previous remote mountainous area to the city in terms of its prison layout). The prison was moved from the remote mountainous area to its present location, which covers an area of more than 340 mu.

Business areas:[80] Electronic product processing, sewing, hardware processing, and manual processing.

Address: Rooms 107, 302, 401, Building No. 7, 1 Beijiaochangheng Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province

Several of its prison enterprises:

1) Liantang Industrial Company, Heyuan City, Guangdong Province, affiliated to Heyuan Prison   of Guangdong Province[81]

Legal representative of the prison company: Wu Xiaozhi, General manager of Liantang Industrial Company, Heyuan City, Guangdong Province; Manager of Heyuan Prison’s enterprise[82]

Located at 2 Donghuan Road South, Yuancheng District, Heyuan City, Heyuan Prison was built in 1972 and covers an area of ​​600 acres. It is a large-scale prison that detains male inmates, who were originally sentenced to a death sentence with reprieve, life imprisonment or a fixed-term imprisonment; and it is designated by the province to detain foreign criminals and job-related offenders. At present, it has a total of 11 prison areas and one hospital.

Business areas: Wool processing, leather processing, fabric processing, hardware processing; tobacco retail.

2) Guangdong Binjiang Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Qingyuan Prison of Guangdong Province[83]
Legal representative of the prison company: Zhong Xiaowen, General manager of Guangdong Province Binjiang Industry Co., Ltd.

Located in Dayou Management Area, Henghe Neighborhood Committee Office, Qingcheng District, Qingyuan City, Qingyuan Prison covers an area of ​​nearly 700 acres, and it is close to Qing-San Highway (from Qingyuan to Sanshui) and 12km away from Qingyuan City. At present, it has 16 prison areas and one prison hospital.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.11 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Guangdong Province.)

 

12. Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Industrial Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau, has 26 prison enterprises

Legal representative of the prison company: Xu Hongguang, Chairman of Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Industrial Group Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee Member and Deputy Director of the Ministry of Justice of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; Deputy Secretary of the Party Committee and Director of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau.[84]

Business areas: Metal processing; machinery manufacturing; production of building materials; real estate; wood processing; garment manufacturing; agricultural production, agricultural and livestock product processing and related consulting services[85]

The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau is the functional organization of Inner Mongolia government in charge of prison-related work in the province. There are 22 units within the province’s prison system. The province’s direct-subordinate prison system has 960,000 acres of land and 22 prison enterprises, which are mainly engaged in machinery manufacturing, production of building materials and coals, garment processing and food production.[86]

Address: 3 Xinhua West Street, Hohhot City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

Examples of its prison enterprises:

1) Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Group Hohhot First Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Hohhot First Prison[87]

The prison compound covers an area of 1.1 square kilometers, with a total fence length of 4,300 meters and a total construction area of 83,000 square meters. It is the earliest and largest urban prison in the district. The prison has 16 functional departments, 10 prison areas and 5 subordinate units.

2) Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Group Hohhot Sixth Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Fifth Prison Area of Hohhot Second Prison, Inner Mongolia (Hohhot High-Security Prison)[88]

Legal representative of the prison company: Qu Baofeng, General Manager of Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Group Hohhot Sixth Industry and Trade Co., Ltd.; Head of Hohhot High-Security Prison[89].

Business areas: Apparel and accessory design, manufacturing, processing and sale; arts and crafts processing; electronic component processing; processing of cotton and wool woven products; bamboo and wood processing; plastic product processing.

The Hohhot Second Prison of Inner Mongolia was built in 1980 and is located within the boundaries of the East Erdaohe Village, Xiaoheihe Town, Yuquan District, Hohhot. It is 0.5 km from the urban area. The prison covers an area of 2,500 acres, among which the prison area covers an area of 1,600 acres, and the Fifth Prison Area covers an area of 900 acres. (The Fifth Prison Area is 31 km from the prison sections and is located within the boundaries of Huangheshao Town, Saihan District, Hohhot City).[90]

Address: Jixian Village, Huangheshao Town, Saihan District, Hohhot City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

3) Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Group Baotou Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Baotou Prison

Legal representative of the prison company: Wang Qiankun, General Manager of Inner Mongolia Hengzheng Group Baotou Industry and Trade Co., Ltd.,Warden of Baotou Prison[91]

Business areas: Production and processing of mechanical equipment and accessories, clothing, shoes, hats, bedding, paper products, wood products, electronic components, bamboo and wood products, metal doors and windows, hardware, plastic products, handicrafts and textiles; metal rolling processing

The Baotou Prison of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was established in 1995. It is the first prison built after the adjustment of the political and judiciary system of the autonomous region, and it is also the largest prison with the most modern facilities in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. It is considered a key prison in the region.[92]

4) Inner Mongolia Xinyi Brick Factory, affiliated to Salaqi Prison of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region[93]

The brick factory is located east of Salaqi Town, Tumd Right Banner, Baotou City. It has a farm of more than 5,000 acres of land. It has expanded its breeding industry and established an oil mill and a carpet factory. In 2000, the prison moved to its current location and made some investment into a multi-hole red brick and “90 red brick” production line, which could produce more than 50 million pieces of bricks annually. Its output value reached 7 million yuan. In 2013, the prison enterprise’s garment production exceeded the 10-million-yuan mark, setting a new record.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.12 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Inner Mongolia.)

 

13. Shanxi Zhenghua Industrial Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Shanxi Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[94], has 24 prison enterprises

Legal representative of the prison company: Shi Yuquan, Chairman of Shanxi Zhenghua Industrial Group Co., Ltd.,Deputy Director of the Shanxi Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[95].

Established on May 7, 2009[96], the Shanxi Provincial Prison Administration Bureau has 22 existing grassroots-level units, all of which are provincial units. Among them, there are 21 detention units and 1 police professional college. Among the 21 detention units, there are 20 prisons and one juvenile offender reformatory.

An example of the prison enterprises:

Shanxi Xinye Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Co. Ltd., affiliated to Yuanping Prison in Shanxi Province[97]

Legal representative of the prison company: Wang Jianying, General Manager of Shanxi Xinye Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd.

There are 220 prison police guards and about 1,500 prisoners in Yuanping Prison.

Business areas: Farming, tree planting, husbandry (poultry, cows and pigs), processing of flexible container bags, coils, wires, cables, garments and customer-supplied materials; house leasing, and space leasing.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.13 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Shanxi Province.)

 

14. Shandong Province Qilu Xinhang Group Ltd.,[98] affiliated to Shandong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 15 branch companies (including 24 prison enterprises)

Legal representative of the prison company: Wang Lijun, Chairman of Shandong Qilu Xinhang Group Co., Ltd., Director of Shandong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau.

Examples of the company’s prison enterprise subsidiaries:

1) Shandong Qilu Motor Manufacturing Co., Ltd.[99], affiliated to the Shandong Provincial Prison (which is a detention for male Falun Gong practitioners)

Legal representative of the prison company: Bi Kejing, General Manager of Shandong Qilu Motor Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Warden of Shandong Provincial Prison.                                                           

Built on July 1, 1955, the company is located in Jinan High-tech Developmental Zone, 18 Huaxin Road, Lixia District, Jinan City. It covers an area of 687,700 square meters (1,031acres), with 1,832 employees. Shandong Qilu Motor Manufacturing Co., Ltd. owns 5 independent legal entities (Jinan Power Generation Equipment Co., Ltd., Jinan Shengjian Motor Factory Co., Ltd., Shandong Power Station Engineering Co., Ltd., Qilu Taishan Power Station Equipment Co., Ltd. and Beijing Qilu Jintai Power Station Technology Co., Ltd.). Its three leading products are turbines, power generators and electric motors, with an annual production capacity of 2 million kilowatts, 8 million kilowatts and 600,000 kilowatts, respectively. In 2011, its total industrial output value reached 1.25 billion yuan and its income was 1.46 billion yuan, increased by 11.92% and 30.35% year-on-year respectively. Its total assets reached 3.038 billion yuan, ranking fourth in the national generator industry.[100]

Figure 3.19 Screenshot of Information on Shandong Qilu Motor Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
 

2) Shandong Jinan Power Generating Equipment Factory Co., Ltd. (JPEF), affiliated to Shandong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau

Legal representative of the prison company and his official position: Zhang Bo, General Manager.

Located in Jinan High-tech Development Zone, JPEF is a state-owned large-scale motor manufacturing enterprise mainly engaged in the production of steam turbine generators, with diversified operations, including scientific research and development, manufacturing, operations and sales. Its leading products are the QF series air-cooled steam turbine generators and the WX series air-cooled steam turbine generators with the licensed technology from Alstom SA (formerly the ABB Group). Its products have a single unit capacity of 350MW. JPEF has a national level research and development center.[101]

3) Shandong Lineng Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Lineng Sub-bureau of Shandong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau

Legal representative of the prison company: Cao Wushun, Communist Party Committee Secretary and President of Shandong Lineng Group Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee Secretary and Director of Lineng Sub-bureau of Shandong Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[102]

Shandong Lineng Group Co., Ltd., located in Jining City of Shandong Province, has six prisons and nine subsidiaries under its jurisdiction.[103] It was established in April 2001 and became wholly state-owned, as it is fully funded by the Shandong Provincial Government acting as a state-owned capital investor. Its nine subsidiaries are Liyan Power Generation, Liyan Mining, Luxi Mining, Xinhe Mining, Luning Development, Lineng Investments, Xinhe Power Generation by Coal, Gas and Underground Coal Gasification, Lineng Concrete, and Yanzhou Coal and Electricity.[104]

Business areas: Electricity generation, coal, cement, machinery, agriculture and transportation; investments and construction projects. With assets of nearly 10 billion yuan, the group was honored as a “First Class State-owned Electric Enterprise”.

The installed capacity of its existing power plant is 0.7 million kw., while the annual production capacity of its coal mine is 2.6 million tons, and for cement production, it is 1.6 million tons. With a land of 12,500 acres, 2,806 staff members and assets of 8.6 billion yuan, the group was ranked as one of the top 100 enterprises of Shandong Province and one of the top 500 large enterprises of China in 2003.

Shandong Lineng Group Co., Ltd., has been accelerating the expansion speed of its power plant, coal mine and construction material business, while actively developing its high- tech industries, including underground coal gasification and environmental protection.

Figure 3.20 Screenshot of Information on Shandong Lineng Group Co., Ltd. (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

Liyan Power Generation Co. Ltd. is affiliated to Lineng Group. It is a large-scale enterprise mainly engaging in electric power generation and coal production, which is supplemented by various related businesses, such as new building material, special steel, machining and agricultural operations. The company has 2.754-billion-yuan net assets, 692,000 kilowatts of installed capacity, 4 billion kilowatt-hours of annual power generation, 1.6 million tons of annual cement output, and it produces 120 million wall bricks per year. In 2005, it achieved an output value of 1.172 billion yuan.[105]

4) Shandong Tianyi Optoelectronics Co., Ltd., affiliated to Lubei Prison of Shandong Province[106]

Legal representative of the prison company: Li Hongxin, General Manager of Shandong Tianyi Optoelectronics Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee Secretary and Warden of Lubei Prison[107].

Lubei Prison of Shandong Province is located at 501 Changjiang 5th Road, Lize Neighborhood Committee Office, Economic and Technological Development Zone, Binzhou City, Shandong Province. It is a high-security prison, one of the key projects for the adjustment of prison layout in Shandong. Its total investment is about 800 million yuan, and its total construction land area is about 850 acres, and its planned detainment capacity is 4,000 people. Its originally name was Lubei Detention Site of Yunhe Prison of Shandong, because Yunhe Prison was in charge of this new prison’s construction. On October 26, 2016, it was officially listed as Lubei Prison of Shandong Province.

Business areas: It mainly engages in the production and sale of semiconductor optoelectronics, displays, lighting devices and accessories; research and development, production and sale of solar energy semiconductors, photovoltaic products and electronic energy-saving technology products; processing and sale of clothing, shoes and hats, bags, toys, home-woven textile products, rattan products, plastic woven products, leather products, diamond jewelry, cultural and sports goods, plastic products and metal products; integrated circuit board research and design, plug-in, post-welding, assembly and processing; copying; lighting design, decoration and installation engineering; computer control software technology consulting and related technical services; manufacturing and sale of mechanical equipment (excluding special processing equipment) and control equipment; sale of high and low-voltage components, instrumentation, hardware and electric equipment; contracting of urban and road lighting engineering.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.14 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Shandong Province.)

 

15. Jilin Province Jixin Group Co. Ltd., affiliated to the Jilin Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 22 prison enterprises

Legal representative of the prison company: Feng Gang, Chairman of Jilin Jixin Group Co.,Party Committee Member of Jilin Provincial Justice Department, Party Committee Secretary and Director of Jilin Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[108].

Business areas: The company manages state-owned operating assets of the enterprises within the province's prison system; production, processing and sales of electromechanical equipment (excluding cars), chemical products, apparels, cement, construction materials; production and sale of agricultural and sideline products; labor processing .

An example of the company’s prison enterprise subsidiaries:

Jilin Sifang Agriculture Co., Ltd. is under the jurisdiction of Jilin Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, Zhenlai Branch. It is known to the outside world as a company named Jilin Sifangtuozi Farm (Sifangtuozi Farm for short).

Legal representative of the prison company: Liu Changquan, General Manager of Jilin Sifang Agriculture Co., Ltd.,Deputy General Manager of Jilin Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, Zhenlai Branch’s enterprise[109].

Zhenlai Branch is a prison administration institution located in Zhenlai County and directly managed by Jilin Provincial Prison Administration Bureau. It’s also the largest prison compound in Jilin Province, with 9 prisons under its jurisdiction. Its existing land area is 234.5 square kilometers. It was built in January 1956 in the northeast of Zhenlai County. It is located at 46°50′ to 46°22′ north latitude and 124° east longitude.

Business areas: Grain and economic planting; freshwater aquaculture and sale; labor and customer-supplied material processing; civil construction; prefabricated component manufacturing; livestock and poultry farming; grain purchase; edible vegetable oil processing.

In 2002 and 2003, Zhenlai Branch’s agricultural production realized a historic transformation. In 2004, its paddy fields were expanded to 5,500 hectares, and its total rice output was nearly 40,000 tons, making a net profit of more than 38 million yuan. One subsidiary of Jilin Sifang Agriculture Co., Ltd. has 10 prison areas for production. In the first four months of 2015, the subsidiary generated an income of more than 8.632 million yuan by using slave labor of its detainees. The subsidiary actually generated an income of 2.51 million yuan in April 2015.[110]

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.15 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Jilin Province.)
 

16. Guangxi Huasheng Group Co., Ltd.[111], affiliated to Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau, has 18 wholly-owned subsidiaries (some information indicates that there are 21 prison enterprises)

Legal representative of the prison company: Qu Guohua, Chairman of Guangxi Huasheng Group Co, Ltd., Director and Communist Party Committee Secretary of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau[112].

The autonomous region prison administration bureau has 134 administrative staff members, and 22 staff members have been delegated to Guangxi Huasheng Group Co., Ltd. as political and legal officers.

The company is entirely state-owned, as approved by the government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 1996, with a registered capital of 300 million yuan and fixed assets of 1.5 billion yuan. The group enterprise has 18 subsidiaries with an existing land area of 370,000 acres, including more than 350,000 acres of farm lands and more than 10,000 acres of industrial lands. Its total industrial and agricultural output value is about 900 million yuan.

Business areas: The company operates three sugar manufacturing companies that produce 150,000 tons of machine processed sugar, one diesel engine factory that produces 3,000 diesel engines and generator sets, one auto parts factory that produces 10,000 tons of parts, four fruit production bases that produce 15 million kilograms of fruits, and seven breeding bases that have 150,000 pigs. It also processes tea leaves, customer-supplied materials and machines.

Figure 3.21 Screenshot of Information on Guangxi Huasheng Group Co., Ltd. (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

 

An example of the company’s prison enterprise subsidiaries:

Liaoping Sugar Co., Ltd. of Guangxi Huasheng Group, affiliated to Litang Prison of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region[113]

Legal representative of the prison company: Hu Tao, General manager of Liaoping Sugar Co., Ltd., General manager and Communist Party Committee’s Deputy Secretary of Litang Prison[114].

Litang prison, originally named Liaoping Farm, was established in 1951, covering an area of 64 square kilometres. It has more than 1,800 police guards and staff members and fixed assets of more than 200 million yuan. Litang Prison is the biggest prison in Guangxi.

Business areas: Production and sale of white sugar, brown sugar and red bricks; preparation for the production of alcohol for cooking use; swine breeding and sale, butchering and processing of poultry and livestock; planting and sale of rice, sugar canes, timber and fruits; processing of stoves and accessories, knitwear, artificial gem crafts, lantern crafts, mobile phone batteries, metal jewelry and customer-supplied materials for travel bags; retail and wholesale of auto parts, steel, chemicals, feed, agricultural and sideline products, daily necessities and hardware and electronic products; hotel operations; transportation for fresh agricultural products

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.16 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.)

 

17. Shanghai Shenyue Enterprise Development (Group) Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Shanghai Municipal Prison Administration Bureau, has 19 prison enterprises[115]

Legal representative of the prison company: Mao Guoping, Chairman of Shanghai Shenyue Enterprise Development (Group) Co., Ltd., Director of Planning and Finance Division of Shanghai Municipal Prison Administration Bureau[116].

The Shanghai Municipal Prison Administration now administers 11 prisons and one Juvenile Delinquency Reformatory. Among them, the Baimaoling Prison and Juntianhu Prison are located in the Wannan area (i.e. southern part of Anhui Province). There are also the Prison General Hospital, the Judicial Police School and a number of security enterprises that serve the prison-related work. Since 1949, these prisons have cumulatively detained more than 400,000 criminals.[117]

Examples of prison enterprise subsidiaries:

1) Shanghai Longguang Economic and Trade Service Center,  affiliated to Shanghai Sichahe Prison[118]

Legal representative of the prison company: Bao Jiasong, General Manager of Shanghai Longguang Economic and Trade Service Center,Communist Party Committee Secretary and Warden of Sichahe Prison.

Shanghai Longguang Economic and Trade Service Center is under the jurisdiction of the Shanghai First Labor Reeducation Management Institute.[119] Shanghai Sichahe Prison is located in the northeast of Dafeng City, Jiangsu Province. It was established in April 1950, as the largest “enclave” outside the Shanghai Municipality. The successive municipal communist party committees and municipal governments have positioned it to be “an important strategic space for social security in Shanghai and the largest food and non-staple food production base of Shanghai.” In January 1983, its name was changed to the current Shanghai Municipal First Institute of Reeducation through Labor Management Institute. (The name of the prison enterprise is Shanghai Farm of Shanghai City). In June 2014, Sichahe Prison was formally established.[120]

Business areas: Labor services; supply and sale of oil, metal materials, construction and decoration materials, mechanical and electrical products, electronic products, knitwear and textiles, daily groceries, agricultural and sideline products, pesticides, fertilizers, films, grain and oil products within the system; self-owned housing leasing.

2) Shanghai Nanling Industry Corporation, affiliated to the Baimaoling Prison of Shanghai City

Legal representative of the prison company: Tang Yunlong, General Manager of Shanghai Nanling Industry Corporation, Deputy Warden of Baimaoling Prison of Shanghai City[121].

Shanghai Baimaoling Prison (located in Langxi County, Xuancheng City, Anhui Province) was established in March 1956 to relocate homeless, disabled and elderly people, street children and orphans from Shanghai. It was built in the hilly area at the junction of Langxi and Guangde Counties in southern Anhui and covers an area of ​​40.5 square kilometers. It is an administrative unit under the Shanghai Municipal Prison Administration Bureau. Baimaoling Prison has invested 70 million yuan to build a modern, garden-style, national first-class central prison area with the capacity to detain about 2,200 prisoners. The prison’s drainage reform projects have also been implemented, with a new seedling production base, a non-staple food production base and a swine breeding base.[122]

Business areas: Mechanical construction and repair; retail of hardware and electric appliances; processing of toys and knitwear; planting and organizing of seedlings for external sale (excluding licensed products)

Address: Baimaoling, Taocheng Town, Langxi County, Xuancheng City, Anhui Province

3) Shanghai Shenyue Garment Factory, affiliated with Qingpu Prison of Shanghai City, has 9 prison areas

Legal representative of the prison company: Xu Jibing, General Manager of Shanghai Shenyue Garment Factory, Deputy Warden of Qingpu Prison[123].

Business areas: Production of various toys, jade carvings, needle textiles, travel goods, clothing, leather shoes, labor and defense supplies, metal products, paper products, paper moulds and electronic products.

Qingpu Prison of Shanghai City is located at 7405 Waiqingsong Highway, Qingpu District, in the western suburbs of Shanghai. It was officially unveiled and started operating on December 24, 1994. The prison covers an area of ​​about 300 acres, and has more than 500 policemen. It is a high-security prison mainly detaining convicted criminals who have originally been sentenced to more than 7 years of imprisonment.[124]

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.17 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Shanghai City.)

 

18. Fujian Jinghong Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Fujian Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[125], has 20 prison enterprises.

Legal representative of the prison company: Chen Youshun, Chairman of Fujian Jinghong Group Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee Deputy Secretary and Political Commissar of Fujian Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[126].

The Fujian Provincial Prison Administration Bureau has 17 prisons, one juvenile correctional institution, Fujian Jianxin Hospital and the Fujian Provincial Judicial Police Training Corps under its jurisdiction.

Business areas: operation and management of state-owned assets of provincial prison enterprises according to the law and under the authorization of the provincial government; production of industrial products, such as mechanical equipment, moulds, building materials and cement; processing of clothing, electronic products, footwear and bags; and property management.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.18 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Fujian Province.)

 

19. Heilongjiang Province Longyu Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to the Heilongjiang Provincial Prison Administration Bureau,[127] has 19 prison enterprises.

Legal representatives of the prison company and their official positions in the prison system:

Song En,[128] Chairman of Heilongjiang Province Longyu Group Co., Ltd.; Communist Party Committee Deputy Secretary and Chief of Heilongjiang Provincial Prison Administration Bureau.

Luan Jinghe[129], general manager of Heilongjiang Province Longyu Group Co., Ltd.

Business areas: management of the prison enterprise assets; operations of the import and export business (according to the import and export enterprise qualification certificates); coal mining (branch company operations only)

Examples of the prison enterprise subsidiaries:

1) Qiqihar Tengcheng New Building Materials Factory, affiliated to Qiqihar Prison of Heilongjiang Province[130]

Legal representative of the prison company: Wang Letian, General manager of Qiqihar Tengcheng New Building Material Factory, Communist Party Committee Secretary and Warden of Qiqihar Prison[131].

Qiqihar Prison of Heilongjiang Province is located in the northwest of the Songnen Plain. It covers an area of ​​5,140 acres and has ​​3,000 acres of cultivated area.

2) Heilongjiang Province Laolai Farm Co., Ltd., affiliated to Nehe Prison of Heilongjiang Province[132]


Legal representative of the prison company: Qi Honglian, General manager of Heilongjiang Province Laolai Farm Co., Ltd., General manager of Nehe Prison Enterprise Office[133].

Laolai Prison is located in Nehe City, Qiqihar City, covering an area of ​​275,000 acres with an existing arable land of 161,500 acres. Its prison dorms cover an area of ​​60,900 square meters. It is a medium-security prison that mainly detains prisoners who are sentenced to under 15 years of imprisonment.

Business areas: Production of agricultural machinery, hydraulic parts, tractor parts, industrial and           mining parts, steel castings and forgings, oil storage cylinders/tanks and heaters; distribution of hand-woven, agricultural and sideline products; production and sale of oxygen, argon, nitrogen (limited to branch operations); acquisition and sale of scrap steel, copper, aluminum and other metals; garment processing; footwear processing; metal granary manufacturing, and transport route leasing.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.19 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Heilongjiang Province.)
 

20. Gansu Provincial Prison Enterprise Group, affiliated to Gansu Provincial Prison Administration Bureau,[134] has 18 prison enterprises

Legal representative of the prison company: Liu Yan, general manager of Gansu Prison Enterprise Group[135], Deputy director of the Gansu Provincial Prison Administration Bureau

Business areas: Wholesale and retail of machinery and equipment (excluding sedans), building materials, chemical products (except for state restrictions), agricultural and sideline products (excluding grain wholesale), wholesale and retail of daily necessities

Examples of  Prison enterprise subsidiaries:

1) Gansu Provincial Prison Enterprise Group’s Tianshui Machine Tool Co., Ltd., affiliated to Tianshui Prison of Gansu Province[136]

Legal representative of the prison company: Xu Fangming, General Manager of Tianshui Machine Tool Co., Ltd., Gansu Provincial Prison Enterprise Group[137], Manager of Tianshui Prison.

Tianshui Prison is located at 196 Jianshe Road, Qinzhou District, Tianshui City. It is one of the high-security prisons in the province. It mainly detains criminals from Tianshui and Longnan Cities, who were originally sentenced to more than 15 years of imprisonment, life imprisonment and two-year suspended sentences of execution. The prison has set up a so-called Anti-Cult Educational Reform Section (an organization to carry out religious persecution) and other departments/sections. The detention unit has seven prison areas.[138]

Business areas: Manufacturing, production, transportation, sale and maintenance of drilling machines, planers, grinders, plastic machinery and construction machinery; processing of customer-supplied materials; construction; retail and wholesale of wigs & hair products, daily necessities (excluding dangerous materials); cigarette and cigar retail; house rental.

2) Wuwei Liangzhou Carpet Co., Ltd., affiliated to the newly built Wuwei Prison[139]

On December 30, 2011, the former Wuwei Prison and Tianzhu Prison merged to form the new Wuwei Prison. Wuwei Prison is located at 1526 Qilian Avenue, Liangzhou District, Wuwei City. It covers an area of 280 acres  (200.7 acres as the prison construction land and 79.3 acres for the civil police and employee residential buildings). In the prison, there are 14 prison areas, 1 prison hospital and 23 grass-roots communist party branches. There are 519 policemen and 345 workers. The prison has 3 leaders at the department level, 9 leaders at the deputy department level, 2 research personnel, 6 deputy research personnel, 46 cadres at the department level, and 65 cadres at the department level. Wangjingzhai Farm, which is affiliated with the prison, covers an area of 1,509 acres. Qingyuan Farm covers an area of 906 acres.

Business areas: The prison enterprise’s production projects mainly include garment processing, sweater weaving, carpeting, plastic products and iron processing.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.20 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Gansu Province.)

 

21. Zhejiang Donglian Group Co., Ltd.,[140] affiliated to Zhejiang Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 17 prison enterprises

Legal representative of the prison company: Hu Fangrui, Chairman of Zhejiang Donglian Group Co., Ltd., Director of the Zhejiang Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[141].

Zhejiang Provincial Prison Administration Bureau is located at 110 Tianmushan Road, Hangzhou City. The bureau assigns responsibilities of production, operation and management to Zhejiang Donglian Group Co., Ltd. There are 177 registered staff members in the bureau (including 25 part-time employees assigned to key positions in Zhejiang Donglian Group). Among them, there is one director, one political commissar, 4 deputy directors, one Chief of the Political Department and 45 people at departmental-level leadership positions (including one deputy secretary of its Communist Party Committee).

Business areas: Capital management; industrial investment and development; production, processing and sale of electromechanical equipment, hardware and electrical equipment, chemical raw materials and products (excluding dangerous goods and precursor chemicals), metallic materials, decorative building materials, daily necessities and knitwear; production, processing and sale of auto parts; technology development and transfer; sale of livestock, agricultural and sideline products (excluding food); economic information consulting (excluding securities or futures consulting), self-owned house leasing; property management services.

An example of the company’s prison enterprise subsidiaries:

Zhejiang Dongbo Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Linhai Prison of Zhejiang Province[142]  

Legal representative of the prison company: An Feng, General Manager of Zhejiang Dongbo Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., Warden of Linhai Prison of Zhejiang Province[143]

Linhai Prison of Zhejiang Province is located at Shiyun Village, Dayang Neighborhood, Linhai City, covering an area of 450 acres. Its construction preparation started in 2007, construction work started in 2010 and completed in 2013, the prison start detaining inmates in 2014.

Business areas: Manufacturing, processing and sale of apparel, luggage bags, leather products, buttons, zippers, metallic products, plastic products, outdoor furniture, sun shading products, crafts and electronic products

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.21 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Zhejiang Province.)
 

22. Shaanxi Province Yiqin Group Co., Ltd.,[144] affiliated to Shaanxi Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 17 subsidiaries

Legal representative of the prison company: Zhang Minzhong, Chairman of the board of Shaanxi Yiqin Group Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee member and Deputy Director of the Shaanxi Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[145].

In 2004, Shaanxi Yiqin Group Co., Ltd. was established, forming a new type of prison administration system and a new prison economic operating mechanism.

In 2003, the State Council and the Ministry of Justice listed Shaanxi as one province within the first group of pilot provinces for the reforms of the prison system in China. A new mechanism, in which the management of punishment execution operations and the management of production operations are separated, and the law enforcement expenses and production incomes are calculated separately, has been established. The prisons and prison enterprises have mostly implemented standardized operations.

Business areas: Coal transportation and marketing; production, processing, transportation and sale of building materials, machinery, chemicals, electronics, light industry products, agricultural and sideline products and animal husbandry products; grain processing; health care services; hotels and catering services; real estate development and property management; design and construction of civil buildings; project design and construction, hydropower installation; product warehousing and exhibition; customer-supplied material processing; technology transfer; economic information consultation; and other approved projects that are conducive to prison safety, stability and economic efficiency in the prison economy’s development.

Examples of its prison enterprises:

1) Yan’an Fucai Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated with Yan’an Prison of Shaanxi Province

Legal representative of the prison company: Bai Xi, General manager of Shaanxi Fucai Industry Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee Deputy Secretary of Yan’an Prison[146]

The prison covers an area of more than 37,600 acres, of which its main part covers an area of 150 acres. It mainly detains criminals, who are sentenced to less than 15 years of imprisonment and who come from Yulin, Yan’an and Tongchuan.

Address: Zhao Village, Yangou Road, Baota District, Yan’an City, Shaanxi Province

Business areas: Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, inland fisheries; land leasing, wholesale and retail; handicraft processing; clothing sale and processing; other printed matters; shoes and hats.

2) Shangzhenzi Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd. of Shaanxi Province Yiqin Group, affiliated to Huangling Prison of Shaanxi Province[147]

Legal representative of the prison company: Lin Yong, General manager of Shaanxi Shangzhenzi Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd of Yiqin Group,Communist Party Committee Deputy Secretary of Huangling Prison[148] .

Huangling Prison of Shaanxi Province is located in Huangling County, Yan’an City. It was built in March 1956. It was originally the Shangzhenzi Labor Reform Farm in Shaanxi Province, and it was renamed Huangling Prison of Shaanxi Province in January 2006. The prison covers an area of more than 37,000 acres and has more than 6,500 acres of arable land. In August 2014, the entire prison was relocated to Weicheng District, Xianyang City.

Remaining prison unit’s address: Shangzhenzi, Shuanglong Town, Huangling County

Business areas: Self-owned asset management, investments, land leasing; farming, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline, fishery production, processing, management and cooperative development; customer-supplied material processing; labor services; production retail and wholesale.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.22 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Shaanxi Province.)

 

23. The Beijing Municipal Prison Administration Bureau[149] has 8 prisons, Qinghe Branch (6 prisons), 2 prison hospitals and 16 prison enterprises under its jurisdiction

Beijing Prison Administration Bureau, Qinghe Branch (6 prisons under its jurisdiction) has an administrative area of ​​115 square kilometers and detains more than half of all prisoners in Beijing City. The branch is located in Chadian Town, Binhai New District, Tianjin City. Among these 6 prisons, Qianjin Prison is located 49 kilometers away from Jinhan Highway in Ninghe County of Tianjin City. Its prison areas cover 420 acres of land, with a total construction area of 20,594 square meters, and a detention capacity of 2,000 prisoners.[150]

An example of the prison enterprises:

Tianjin Zhixuan Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd., affiliated to Beijing Municipal Prison Administration Bureau Qinghe Branch, Liulin Prison[151]

Liulin Prison of Beijing Municipal Prison Administration Bureau, Qinghe Branch, was established on November 20, 2001 by merging the former Cha’nan Prison, Liuhe Prison and Liulin Prison, which were all under the jurisdiction of the Beijing Municipal Prison Administration Bureau, Qinghe Branch. The prison is located in the southeastern part of the Qinghe Branch, covering a total area of 261 acres, with a construction area of 248 acres, and the capacity of detaining more than 1,800 inmates. Now there are more than 380 police guards in the prison[152].

Business areas: Environmental Technology R&D; indoor air purification services; sewage and sludge treatment; air conditioning maintenance; environmental engineering; landscaping engineering; anti-corrosion and insulation engineering; plastic products, scrap metal, waste resin crushing processing; building materials, sale of hardware, electric products, decoration materials, office supplies and chemical products.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.23 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Beijing.)
 

24. Henan Province Zhonglian Group Corporation, affiliated to Henan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 15 subsidiaries

Legal representative of the prison company: Li Suijun, Chairman of Henan Zhonglian Group Corporation; Communist Party Committee member at and Deputy Director of Henan Provincial Department of Justice; Secretary of the Communist Party Committee and director of Henan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[153].

 Examples of the prison enterprise subsidiaries:

1) Henan Yahao Electric Appliance Manufacturing Co., Ltd.[154], affiliated to Yuzhong Prison of Henan Province

Legal representative of the prison company: Li Gang, General manager of Henan Yahao Electric Appliance Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Deputy Warden of Yuzhong Prison of Henan Province[155].

It was incorporated on October 17, 2007, with a registered capital of 5 million yuan. The company currently has 7 branch factories. Located in Liuji Township, Zhongmu County, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, it covers an area of 305 acres, with a total construction area of 78,256 square meters and a total investment of 117.075 million yuan. The construction of the company started on September 5, 2005, and it was completed and put into use on June 25, 2007. Its production capacity is designed to employ 3,000 workers. The company is mainly engaged in the production, processing and sale of electrical appliances, electronic products, clothing, wool, and footwear, as well as other labor processing businesses.

Figure 3.22 Screenshot of Information on Henan Yahao Electric Appliance Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

2) Luoyang Zhonglian Jianhua Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Luoyang Prison of Henan Province

Legal representative of the prison company: Diao Yuncang, General manager of Luoyang Zhonglian Jianhua Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee Member and Deputy Warden of Luoyang Prison[156].

The company is located in the urban area of Luoyang city.[157] The company is mainly engaged in sweater processing, woven knitwear processing and other manual processing projects. Its existing standardized processing workshop has more than 20,000 square meters, well-equipped processing devices, a technical center and a quality inspection center, with nearly 4,000 employees. There are more than 600 semi-automatic looms, more than 400 sewing machines and other supporting professional equipment. It has the processing capacity to undertake the production of casual shirts, jackets, multi-pocket pants, cotton coats, camouflage suits, work clothes, latex suits, sealed gel coats and adhesive coats.

Figure 3.23 Main building of Luoyang Zhonglian Jianhua Industry and Trade Co., Ltd.


a

Figure 3.24 Screenshot of Information on Luoyang Zhonglian Jianhua Industry and Trade Co.
Source: Baidu Baike.(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.24 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Henan Province.)
 

25. Chongqing Yujian Holdings (Group) Co., Ltd., affiliated to Chongqing Municipal Prison Administration Bureau,[158] has 14 subsidiaries

Legal representative of the prison company: Deng Shengming, General manager of Chongqing Yujian Holdings (Group) Co., Ltd.[159]

Registered address: 2 Huanglong Road, Huangnipang, Yubei district, Chongqing City

Examples of the prison enterprise subsidiaries:

1) Chongqing Jinmai Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Nanchuan Prison of Chongqing City[160]

Legal representative of the prison company: Fan Yuanshou, General Manager of the company, Communist party committee member and deputy warden of Nanchuan Prison.

Nanchuan Prison of Chongqing City[161] is a medium-security prison established in 2004. It is located in Shuijiang Town, Nanchuan District, 84 kilometers away from the main urban area of Chongqing City. Nanchuan Prison is the first prison to be entirely relocated and rebuilt after Chongqing became a central government directly-controlled municipality. It covers an area of more than 800 acres, including a main factory area of more than 500 acres  and No. 204 Subdistrict of nearly 300 acres in total. It detains 3,107 criminals. It is located in Shuijiang Town, Nanchuan District, Chongqing City.

2) Chongqing Yujian Holdings Group’s Axle Manufacturing Co., Ltd., affiliated to Yudu Prison[162]

Legal representative of the prison company: Liang Jinzhong, General manager of Chongqing Xinsheng Electrochemical Equipment Co., Ltd.

Yudu Prison of Chongqing City,[163] formerly the Chongqing Municipal Prison, is located at 94 Qunhui Road, Danzishi Town, Nan’an District of Chongqing. It is about to be relocated to Changsheng Town, Nan’an District. It covers an area of more than 400 acres, and it was built in 1955. It is a high-security prison and detains around 5,000 male criminals, who have been sentenced to more than 16 years of imprisonment, life imprisonment or death sentence with a two-year reprieve. Its enterprise’s name is “Chongqing Xinsheng Electromechanical Equipment Co., Ltd.”

Figure 3.25 Screenshot of Information on Chongqing Yudu Prison. (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

Figure 3.25 Screenshot of Information on Chongqing Yudu Prison. (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

3) Chongqing Dongyin Tianxin Trading Co., Ltd., under the jurisdiction of Dianjiang Prison

Legal representative of the prison enterprise: Zhu Ximing, General Manager of Chongqing Dongyin Tianxin Trading Co., Ltd and Manager of Chongqing Dianjiang Prison Company.[164]

Dianjiang Prison of Chongqing City, formerly known as the Dongyin Labor Reform Detachment of Sichuan Province and Chongqing Fuling Prison. It is located in Xihu Village, Guixi Town, Dianjiang County, 5 kilometers away from Dianjiang County and covers an area of 450 acres. At the end of 2006, it achieved a major leapfrogging goal of converting decentralized detention to centralized detention, migration from its remote location to an urban location, and conversion from outdoor labor to indoor labor. The new prison and complementary houses are about 15,000 square meters, and its detention capacity is 4,000 to 6,000 individuals.

Figure 3.26

Figure 3.26 Screenshot of Information on Chongqing Dianjiang Prison. (***Source: Baidu Baike.)

4) Chongqing Xinsheng Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Yongchuan Prison of Chongqing City

Legal representative of the prison enterprise: Yang Fan, General Manager of the company, deputy Warden of Yongchuan Prison[165] .

Yongchuan Prison[166] was established in July 1952. The prison’s company name is Chongqing Xinsheng Tea Farm. It has an area of 13,000 acres, mainly in Yongchuan District, Bishan County, Tongliang County, Dazu County and Shuangqiao District. Some of its prison areas are scattered on the high mountains of 2,951.025 meters above sea level, and it detains more than 5,000 prisoners. It is a large-scale prison for indoor production and processing of tea leaves.

Figure 3.27

Figure 3.27 Screenshot of  Information on Yongchuan Prison in Chongqing City.
Source: Baidu Baike. (For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.25 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Chongqing City.)
 

26. Jiangxi Provincial Prison Enterprise Group Corporation, affiliated to the Jiangxi Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 14 prisons

Legal representative of the prison company: Yu Xiaodong, Chairman of Jiangxi Provincial Prison Enterprise Group Corporation, Communist Party Committee Member and Deputy director of Jiangxi Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[167].

Business areas: Casting, production and sale of machines, hardware, electronic devices, cement and chemical construction materials; design, construction and installment of architecture engineering products; production and sale of malleable cast iron products, water heating equipment, fire-fighting equipment and medical equipment; production and sale of clothing, shoes and externally processed products; agricultural development and planting; livestock industry development and breeding; promotion for agricultural production technologies; agricultural funding services; hotel management services; investments in various kinds of industries; real estate development; leasing of real estate; property management services; logistics services; warehouse services (excluding hazardous chemical substances); information technology services; domestic trading, import and export trading; tourism development.

Address: 188 Huoju Street, Nanchang High-tech Industrial Development Zone, Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province

An example of the prison enterprise subsidiaries:

Jiangxi Jirui Trading Co., Ltd., affiliated to Ji’an Prison of Jiangxi Province[168]

Legal representative of the prison company: Peng Zhi, General manager of Jiangxi Jirui Trading Co., Ltd., a high-ranking official at Ji’an Prison[169]

The predecessor of Ji’an Prison is Ruizhou Prison (Jiangxi Dubu Farm), which was founded in 1955. The prison was designed to hold 3,000 individuals. It is a high-security medium-sized prison, with 540 policemen and 100 armed policemen. The total investment of its projects is 135 million yuan, and its land acquisition area is 19,128 square hectometers. Its total planned construction area is 83,976 square meters.

Business areas: Processing and sale of commodities, clothing, knitwear, leather and leather products, suitcases, shoes and hats, electronic products, hardware, artworks and decorations; crop planting, forest planting and sale; sale of livestock and aquaculture products; packaging of artwork decorations; information consulting services.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.26 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Jiangxi Province.)
 

27. Qinghai Qingjiang Industrial Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Qinghai Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[170]

Legal representative of the prison company: Liu Jianjia, General Manager of Qinghai Qingjiang Industrial Group Co., Ltd.[171], Member of Communist Party Branch and Deputy Director of Qinghai Provincial Prison Administration Bureau.

There are 14 county-level units under the Qinghai Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, including 10 county-level units, which are 8 prisons, one Central Hospital of the Bureau (Qinghai Red Cross Hospital) and one Bureau Logistic Service Center.

Business areas: The company is responsible for the management of operating assets in the province’s prison system, and it assumes the responsibility of maintaining and increasing the value of assets within the scope of its management; production and operation of mechanical and electrical equipment, building materials and light industrial products; design and construction of industrial and civil construction projects, installation of water and electricity, and decoration; agricultural and livestock product production, processing, and operations; real estate development; information consulting.

Address: 191 Kunlun East Road, Chengdong District, Xining City, Qinghai Province

An example of the prison enterprise subsidiaries:

Qinghai Xixin Industry Co., Ltd., affiliated to Xichuan Prison of Qinghai Province[172]

Legal representative of the prison company: Jin Bo, General Manager of Qinghai Xixin Industry Co., Ltd., Warden of Xichuan Prison[173]

Xichuan Prison of Qinghai Province was built in 1956. It is located at 151 Xichuan South Road, Chengxi District, Xining City. covering an area of ​​more than 950 acres.

Business areas: Hydro generator manufacturing and maintenance; house construction; electrical and mechanical equipment installation; production, processing and sale of castings, forgings, high and low voltage switchgear, linear metal products, brick and tile fittings, solar cookers, aluminum plastic doors and windows, aluminum alloy doors and windows; metal cutting and welding processing; motor and electrical maintenance; mesh fence processing and installation; non-metallic part manufacturing and processing; processing of customer-supplied materials; garment processing; tent processing; stove processing; and house leasing.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.27 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Qinghai Province.)

 

28. Hainan Prison Enterprise Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Hainan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau, has 8 prisons under its jurisdiction[174]

Legal representative of the prison company: Li Dahai, Chairman of Hainan Prison Enterprise Group Co., Ltd., Communist Party Committee member and Deputy Director of Hainan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau[175]

The Hainan Provincial Prison Administration Bureau is the functional department responsible for the execution of penalties in the prisons and the juvenile correctional institution in Hainan Province. It has 8 prisons under its jurisdiction.

Business areas: Real estate investment; self-owned house leasing; processing and sale of electronics, building materials, daily necessities, clothing, toys and knitwear; plant and equipment rental; highly efficient tropical agriculture.

Address: Room 705, Landun Building, Fengxiang Road, Haikou City
(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.28 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Hainan Province.)

 

29. Ningxia Ningshuo Industrial Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau, has 6 prison enterprises

Legal representative of the prison company: Cao Yi, General manager of Ningxia Ningshuo Industrial Group Co., Ltd.; Deputy Director and Communist Party Committee of the Justice Department of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region; Director of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Prison Administration Bureau[176]

Examples  of the prison enterprise subsidiaries:

1) Ningxia Xinhai’an Coast Garment Co., Ltd., affiliated to Ningxia Women’s Prison[177]

Legal representative of the prison company: Du Xinghua, General Manager of Ningxia Xinhai’an Garment Co., Ltd., Political Commissar of Ningxia Women’s Prison[178]

Business areas: Production and sale of light industrial products, such as clothing and quilts; production and sale of special labor protection items; sale of fabrics, clothing, accessories and textiles; production and sale of agricultural and sideline products; sale and processing of handmade products; information consultation; installation of water and electrical systems.

Ningxia Women’s Prison was founded on May 28, 2001. After merging with the former Ningxia Juvenile Correctional Institute in April 2005, it became the only prison in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region that detains both female criminals and underage male inmates. On June 28, 2015, the entire prison was relocated to the newly built Women’s Prison. The current Women’s Prison has an investment of 140 million yuan, covers an area of 72.86 acres, and is designed to detain 1,500 inmates.

2) Guanmahu Agriculture, Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., affiliated to Wuzhong Prison of Ningxia[179]

Legal representative of the prison company: Chen Youcai, General Manager of Guanmahu Agriculture, Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., Chen, Youcai / General Manager of Ningxia Ningshuo Group Guanmahu Agricultural Industry and Trade Co., Ltd.

Business areas: Production and sale of agricultural and sideline products, hardware and electronic products, household products, electrical machinery and equipment; sale of building materials; manufacturing of all kinds of doors and windows, furniture and bricks; garment processing; leather goods, gift box and decorative product processing; electronic product assembly and sale.

Wuzhong Prison of Ningxia was founded in 1955 and is located in Huojiawan, Litong District, Wuzhong City. It is located 18 km south of Wuzhong City and covers a total area of 16,656 acres. It is a prison of medium-security level and detains prisoners sentenced to under 15 years of imprisonment. The criminal detention is mainly divided into two sections. The prison mainly engages in garment processing, gift box processing and leather processing.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.29 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Hunan Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.)

 

30. Tianjin Tongbao Group Co., Ltd., affiliated to Tianjin Municipal Prison Administration Bureau[180]

On June 19, 2009, the company was formally established. The group company has 11 wholly-owned subsidiaries. It is divided into 13 units, including one emergency special service team and 12 detention units: Tianjin Municipal Prison, Hexi Prison, Liyuan Prison, Yangliuqing Prison, Ligang Prison, Binhai Prison, Xiqing Prison, Women’s Prison, Jinxi Prison, Kangning Prison, Juvenile Offender Correctional Institution and Changtai Prison.

(For more information, please refer to Appendix 2.30 for a list of prison enterprises that use slave labor in Tianjin City.)

 

Please see related links:

The Second part

 

 

Reference
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