To investigate the criminal conduct of all institutions, organizations, and individuals involved in the persecution of Falun Gong; to bring such investigations, no matter how long it takes, no matter how far and deep we have to search, to full closure; to exercise fundamental principles of humanity; and to restore and uphold justice in society.

WOIPFG’s Investigation Report on Tianjin First Central Hospital and its Staff Members Suspected of Participation in Live Organ Harvesting

December 11, 2020

 

Address: No. 24 Fukang Road, Nankai District, Tianjin

Tel: 022-23626600

Website: http://www.tj-fch.com

 

According to World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong’s (WOIPFG) investigation records, the director of kidney transplantation at Tianjin First Central Hospital and the assistant to the hospital president Shen Zhongyang both admitted in 2006 and 2018 respectively that they used Falun Gong practitioner as donors.

The number of organ transplants has been increasing explosively at Tianjin First Central Hospital since 1999.[1] The rapid establishment of large organ transplant and organ transplant research institutions, coupled with massive transplant surgical teams, has rendered the hospital one of the organ transplantation work units with the fastest development and the largest volume of transplant operations in China. The Tianjin Organ Transplant Center, Tianjin Organ Transplant Research Institute and the Orient Organ Transplant Center of Tianjin First Central Hospital were rapidly established in 2000, 2002 and 2003 respectively. On September 1, 2006, a new organ transplant building with more than 500 beds (other official media reported that there were more than 700 beds dedicated to organ transplantation at the building’s opening[2]) was put into use, and the bed utilization rate reached 90% to 131.1%. In actuality, the annual transplantation volume is estimated to have reached 5,000 to 8,000 cases.[3]

Headed by Shen Zhongyang, the organ transplant center sent out transplant teams to guide and assist more than 50 hospitals across China to carry out the first liver transplant operations of their own and to promote the clinical implementation of liver transplantation as a routine practice throughout the country. It is one of the criminal work units suspected of participating in the most severe live organ harvesting cases.

 

I. Hospital overview

 

Tianjin First Central Hospital is a comprehensive Class A tertiary hospital featuring organ transplantation.[4] It has 2,150 formal medical staff members, including 334 individuals with senior professional designations. Among them, 31 experts enjoy special allowances from the State Council, three are experts with their titles endowed by Tianjin City, and one is an expert of special contribution in Tianjin City.[5]

The Organ Transplant Center, located in the headquarters of the hospital, ranks first among the hospital’s 36 departments as the most distinctive and advantageous clinical department. In December 2000, the department was officially named Tianjin Organ Transplant Center by the Municipal Health Bureau.[6] In 2002, the Tianjin Organ Transplant Research Institute was established. The center has transplant surgery, internal medicine, ICU, follow-up, anesthesia, imaging, pathology, ultrasound, laboratories and other departments. And with the largest professional organ transplant teams in China capable of carrying out multiple organ transplants, including liver, kidney, pancreas, small intestine and heart surgeries, the center is considered the largest organ transplant institute in Asia.[7]

The Orient Organ Transplant Center of Tianjin First Central Hospital was officially established in December 2003.[8] It has also established Nantong Liver and Kidney Transplant Center,[9] which performs routine liver and kidney transplantation, as well as the Shandong Branch of the Orient Organ Transplant Center.[10]

 

II. The main donor sources are Falun Gong practitioners

 

Judging from the CCP’s media reports and the information publicly disclosed on the transplant center’s website, the volume of transplants performed by Tianjin First Central Hospital is high enough to question the CCP’s rhetoric about the source of organs. In the absence of an organ donation system, definitely not all organs used for transplantation in hospitals come from executed prisoners.

 

1. The director of kidney transplantation and the assistant to hospital president Shen both admitted, in 2006 and 2018 respectively, that they were using Falun Gong members as donors.

In March 2006, insiders exposed the tragedy of organ harvesting from living Falun Gong practitioners in Sujiatun, Shenyang, and another major source of organs was unveiled.[11]

Example of a WOIPFG telephone investigation: Both the hospital’s kidney transplant director and the president’s assistant admitted, in 2006 and 2018 respectively, that they were using Falun Gong practitioners as donors.

 

Subject of Investigation: Bai Rongsheng, Liver transplant doctor and an assistant to President Shen Zhongyang at Tianjin First Central Hospital.[12]

Date: November 15, 2018 (Tel: +86-13803019898)

Summary:

Investigator: “Regarding liver donors, the situation now is that in general they are the type of healthy donors, right? The kind from Falun Gong practitioners, right?”

Bai Rongsheng: “Right, right, right, ah.”

(Recording 1. Download: MP3; Transcript Download: pdf 1)
 

Subject of Investigation: Song Wenli, chief kidney transplant physician, Organ Transplant Center of Tianjin First Central Hospital[13]

Date: March 15, 2006 (Tel: +86-13920128990)

Summary:
Investigator: Is this Director Song of Tianjin First Central Hospital?

Song Wenli: Ah, yes, speaking, please!

Investigator: ...His doctor told him that the kidney source was quite good, (because) the donor did exercises. (When the doctor was asked about) what kind of exercises it was, (his answer) was Falun Gong. That is, Falun Gong practitioners are generally healthy and fit… [Interrupted by Song]

Song Wenli: Of course! We also have this kind of situations here. We also have this kind of donors, who have breathing or heartbeat, so to speak. We also have these. We probably have had over a dozen kidneys of this kind so far this year.

(Recording 2. Download: MP3; Transcript Download: pdf 2)

Profile of Song Wenli: Director of Kidney Transplantation in the Organ Transplant Center of Tianjin First Central Hospital, member of the Organ Transplantation Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, and member of the Organ Transplantation Branch of the Tianjin Medical Association. He has completed more than 2,000 kidney transplant cases.[14]

 

2. It is impossible for the liver donors to come from death-row inmates executed in Tianjin

From January 2004 to August 2008, Tianjin First Central Hospital excised 1,600 donor livers.[15] During this four-year period, there weren’t so many executed prisoners in Tianjin. Tianjin had about 40 executed prisoners each year. That is, there were only 160 executed prisoners cumulatively in four years, accounting for only one-tenth of the 1,600 liver donors. So, there is a large gap between the two figures. For various reasons, it is impossible for every single executed prisoner to be a suitable organ donor. Moreover, there are other organ transplant hospitals in Tianjin that also need organ supplies.

In an interview with the CCTV in July 2018, Huang Jiefu said that the quality of executed prisoners’ organs was very poor, and the requirements for organ sources were very strict, so it was impossible to obtain suitable organs on the execution sites.[16]

 

3. Organ donations from the Red Cross Society are minimal (based on the data since 2015)

Starting from January 1, 2015, the use of executed prisoners’ organs as a source of transplant donor organs was completely banned by the CCP. The CCP claimed that voluntary organ donation after the death of citizens would become the only organ source for transplantation.[17]

In 2017, several thousand cases of organ transplantation were performed in Tianjin First Central Hospital alone. Meanwhile, Hebei Province (where Tianjin is located) received only over 100 organ donations witnessed by the Tianjin Red Cross Society in 2017.

 

Official reports: Organ Donation Volumes

Table 1. Officially Reported Volumes of Donated Organs from 2015 to 2018

Year

Cumulative Volume of Organ Donations

As of March 1, 2015

123 cases

As of the end of September 2016

293 cases[18]

As of May 2017

400 cases

As of the end of March 2018

521 cases[19]

 

Phone Investigation: Statistical Table of Organ Donation Volumes from 2015 to 2018

 

Table 2. Statistical Table of Phone Investigation Results of Organ Donation Volumes from 2015 to 2018

Date

Year

Person Investigated

Organization

 

Organ Donation Situation

December 11, 2015

2015

A staff member

Red Cross Society of China, Tianjin Branch

There had been more than 170 donors since the establishment of the donation system in Tianjin in 2003.

(Recording 3. Download: MP3; Transcript Download: pdf 3)[20]

November 9, 2017

2017

A staff-on-duty

Organ Donation Office of Red Cross Society of China, Tianjin Branch

A total of over 3,000 people had been registered for organ donation in the past few years. It only shows their willingness to donate organs after death. In Tianjin, there were over 100 donation cases in 2016 and also in 2017.

(Recording 4. Download: MP3; Transcript Download: pdf 4)[21]

June 26, 2018

2018

Director Gui Zhichao

Donation Service Department, Tianjin Human Organ Donation Management Center at Red Cross Society of China, Tianjin Branch

There are about more than 100 organ donations witnessed and certified by the Red Cross of China, Tianjin Branch, in a year.

(Recording 5. Download: MP3; Transcript Download: pdf 5)[22]

 

Figure 1. Comparison Graph of the Number of Voluntary Organ Donors in Tianjin City and the Liver Transplant Volume in the Tianjin First Center Hospital in 2017
 

Tianjin has three hospitals designated by the Ministry of Health to carry out liver and kidney transplantation. The annual volume of liver and kidney transplantation in the Tianjin First Central Hospital is as large as several thousand cases per year.[23]

The large gap between the number of organ donations and transplant volume indicates that there are major donor sources other than organ donations. 

 

II. The massive scale of organ transplantation at the Orient Organ Transplant Center

After 1999, Tianjin First Central Hospital became one of the organ transplant work units with the fastest development and the largest number of transplants across China.

 

1. The hospital’s organ transplant volume has experienced an explosive growth since 1999

 

In May 1994, Shen Zhongyang completed the first case of orthotopic liver transplantation after returning to China from his stay in Japan. In September 1998, he returned to Tianjin First Central Hospital to set up an organ transplantation department and performed seven liver transplants by the end of the year. From 1994 to 1998, Tianjin First Central Hospital completed eight liver transplants in five years.[24]

After the establishment of the organ transplant center, transplant surgical teams were dispatched from the hospital to guide more than 50 other hospitals across the country to carry out their first liver transplants and promoted the implementation of routine clinical liver transplantation nationwide.[25]

Since 2000, liver and kidney transplantation has become routine clinical operations in Tianjin First Central Hospital, and its organ transplant volume has experienced an explosive growth. In 1999, 24 liver transplants were performed.[26] According to a news article published by ENorth Netnews, which belongs to the Tianjin municipal government, in the two years after 2000, the total cumulative number of liver transplants performed by Shen Zhongyang’s team increased from 24 to 209 cases. And it took only one year in 2003 for the liver transplant volume to increase from 209 to 1,000 cases.[27]

In 2004, Shen Zhongyang’s organ transplant department had expanded to include five branches in Tianjin, Beijing and the rest of Shandong Province. The transplant branch presided by Shen Zhongyang is located within the Armed Police General Hospital in Beijing.[28]

On March 17, 2005, Shen Zhongyang performed a liver transplant at the Armed Police General Hospital. The CCTV’s “Oriental Horizon” program reported that “this is the 1,600th operation he has performed.”[29]

At the end of 2005, a family member of a patient revealed to Phoenix Weekly that the transplant center had performed at most 24 liver and kidney transplants in one single day.[30]

According to the 2005 Orient Organ Transplant Center year-end summary conference, in 2005, the hospital performed 647 orthotopic liver transplants, 436 kidney transplants, 21 cases of combined liver-kidney transplantation, and two cases of combined pancreas-kidney transplantation.[31]

In 2006, the Organ Transplant Center at Tianjin First Central Hospital completed 676 liver transplants.[32]

As of 2009, Tianjin First Central Hospital had completed more than 3,300 cases of liver transplantation, 2,357 cases of kidney transplantation and 31 cases of combined pancreas-kidney transplantation.[33] According to the “China Liver Transplant Registration (CLTR)”, by the end of 2010, the transplant teams at Tianjin First Central Hospital and the Beijing Armed Police General Hospital headed by Shen Zhongyang had completed a combined total of 6,270 liver transplants for the year.[34]

On December 10, 2014, mainland Chinese newspaper Science and Technology Daily reported that as of December 2014, the total number of liver transplants performed by Shen Zhongyang had exceeded 10,000 cases.[35]

In addition, in January 2015, “Tonight Media Group” claimed that “under the guidance of Shen Zhongyang, the previous young resident doctors independently completed nearly a thousand liver transplant operations.”[36] WOIPFG published a list of organ transplant surgeons working at the hospital in 2014. For doctors specializing in liver and kidney transplantation alone, we could find from the hospital’s official website and medical papers that 110 of them had actually performed operations,[37] including 21 chief physicians, 25 associate chief physicians, 13 attending physicians and 51 other medical personnel.

 

2. During the peak period of organ transplantation around 2006, the annual number of liver and kidney transplants in the hospital was estimated to be 5,000 to 8,000 cases

 

2.1 Calculations based on bed count, bed occupancy rate and the average length of hospital stay for liver transplantation patients at Tianjin First Central Hospital’s Orient Organ Transplant Center
 

The new building of the hospital’s organ transplant center was officially opened on September 1, 2006,[38] with more than 500 beds.[39] (Others reported that the number of beds had reached 700 at that time.[40])

Bed occupancy rate (BOR): 90 to 131.1 percent.[41] In 2013, the average BOR of Class A tertiary hospitals was 103 percent.[42]

The average length of stay for a liver transplant patient in China is 25 to 30 days, and the average length of stay for kidney transplants is 30 days.

Annual Transplantation Quantity at Tianjin First Central Hospital’s Orient Organ Transplant Center:

5,475 cases (500 beds × 365 days × 90% / 30 days), using 90 percent as the average BOR, and 30 days as the average length of stay
7,975 cases (500 beds × 365 days × 131.1% / 30 days), using 131.1 percent as the average BOR, and 30 days as the average length of stay

8,544 cases (500 beds × 365 days × 131.1% / 28 days), using 131.1 percent as the average BOR and 28 days as the average length of stay

Based on the above analysis and calculations, we believe that in as early as September 2006, the number of liver and kidney transplants at this hospital had reached more than 5,000 cases a year, and during its peak period, the number almost reached 8,000 cases per year.

In 2014, the hospital had more than 1,500 beds. At the end of 2015, the renovation and expansion project increased this number to 3,200 beds.[43] What the scale of its liver and kidney transplantation should have been?

 

2.2 Field visits by South Korean journalists

 

In 2017, reporters from the TV station “TV Chosun”, which is under South Korea’s largest daily newspaper “Chosun Ilbo”, went to China to conduct field investigations. In October 2017, the field investigation of China’s largest organ transplant center, Orient Organ Transplant Center of Tianjin, showed that:[44]

Patients from the Middle East, South Korea and other countries can receive organ transplants within several days or weeks of waiting in a hotel near the hospital; if a special donation is made to the hospital’s foundation, the organ transplant process will be accelerated. The hospital layout map in the center’s hall shows multiple organ transplant inpatient service sections designated for foreign patients. A nurse from the International Organ Transplantation Department revealed to the investigating reporters that the department actually completed eight organ transplant operations on the first day of the department’s establishment. The investigation team observed that there were more than a dozen operating rooms, which were still fully in use throughout the day. After the over 500 ward beds dedicated to organ transplantation became fully occupied, foreign patients would be placed in rooms on several floors of a nearby hotel, which means that the center could perform several thousand organ transplant operations every year, providing organ transplants to Chinese and foreign patients on demand.

 

2.3 Telephone recordings show that the hospital can perform several thousand organ transplants per year

In 2017, a liver transplant doctor at the Tianjin First Central Hospital claimed that his hospital could perform 400 or 500 cases of liver transplantation a year. After a WOIPFG investigator pressed for confirmation, the doctor admitted that this was the number of surgeries completed by one surgery team alone in one year. Another doctor said that there were more than ten transplant surgery teams in the hospital’s organ transplant center. Our rough estimation is that the annual liver and kidney transplantation volume at this hospital would reach several thousand per year.[45]

On May 4, 2018, a WOIPFG investigator asked a doctor from the Liver Transplantation Doctors’ Office on the 8th Floor of Tianjin First Central Hospital, “Do you perform more than 1,000 cases like my friend said? Every year.” The doctor replied, “More than that. But among our several (transplant) teams, there are at least several hundred cases by each team.”[46]

(Recording 6-1. Download: MP3; Transcript Download: pdf 6-1)

(Recording 6-2. Download: MP3; Transcript Download: pdf 6-2)

 

3. The organ transplant center continuously upgrades its equipments and expands its infrastructure

 

Year

Organ Transplant Center’s Equipment and Infrastructure

2002

 

The hospital began treating South Korean patients in 2002, and a total of over 500 individuals have received treatment so far. A large number of South Korean patients rushed in, rendering the existing medical facilities of Tianjin First Central Hospital extremely insufficient.

The hospital converted the 4th to 7th floors of its 12-storey building into dedicated organ transplant inpatient service area, and renovated 76 ward beds, with 62 of which being in single rooms or suites. In addition, the Orient Organ Transplant Center also borrowed the 8th floor of the TEDA International Cardiovascular Hospital in the Tianjin Economic Technological Development Area (TEDA) as an inpatient service area dedicated to South Korean patients. And at the same time, the rooms on the 24th and 25th floors of a nearby hotel were converted into wards for South Korean patients waiting for organ transplants. Prior to the construction of the new organ transplant center building, it was divided into four liver transplantation teams and three kidney transplant teams, with 120 beds altogether.[47]

2006

 

The Tianjin Municipal Communist Party Committee and the Tianjin municipal government invested about 170 million yuan in the construction of the Orient Organ Transplant Center’s new building. With a construction area of 46,000 square meters, the organ transplant building was completed and put into use in August 2006.[48] The new building of the Organ Transplant Center was officially opened on September 1, 2006,[49] with more than 500 beds.[50] (Others reported that the number of beds had reached 700 at that time.[51]) The 2006 Reconstruction Project Manual of Tianjin First Central Hospital stated, “The utilization rate of liver and kidney transplant beds is over 90%.”[52] The average hospital stay for liver transplantation at this hospital is 25 to 30 days.[53]

2013

 

After the new building had been in use for many years, the hospital claimed, “In 2013, the development of various disciplines in our hospital achieved different degrees of progress.” “The bed utilization rate increased by 5.7% year-on-year,” reaching 131.1%. Therefore, the hospital added 300 more beds to the existing 1,200 ward beds, making a total of 1,500 beds. And it also added some beds to the organ transplant center.[54]

2015

 

The Organ Transplant Center had become the largest organ transplantation base in Asia, the birthplace of clinical liver transplantation in China and the “Transplant Technology Application Base” in Tianjin. At the end of 2015, the third phase of the expansion project was put into use, with 3,200 ward beds.[55]

 

III. Abnormal Medical Phenomena

 

1. Many medical papers show that the warm ischemia times were short; live organ harvesting is suspected

 

A medical paper from Tianjin First Central Hospital published in the Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery in February 2007 claimed, “The warm ischemia times of the donor livers from 200 brain-dead cadavers without heartbeat from 2003 to 2005 were less than eight minutes.”[56]

In most cases mentioned in the medical paper, the warm ischemia times were only a few minutes. This implies that the process of liver excision was the process of turning a living “donor” into “a cadaver without heartbeat”, which would be the process of live organ harvesting.

The following medical paper describes the experiences of liver excisions at Tianjin First Central Hospital.

In the April 2008 issue of Tianjin Journal of Nursing, a medical paper published by Tianjin First Central Hospital, stated that the hospital “performed 2,195 cases of liver transplant operations from 2002 to 2006, and 2,500 cadaveric donor livers were excised. The healthy donors were all lab tested negative for hepatitises, syphilis and AIDS. Their livers were excised after they became brain-dead.”[57] This means that the number of donors was larger than the number of liver excisions, and that the number of liver excisions was larger than that of transplanted organs. Moreover, the usability of the organs was determined only after the donor’s abdomen was opened. The paper’s “Preliminary Inspection of Donor Liver Quality” section mentioned the observation of the liver color after the abdominal incision to determine fatty liver state, and “moderate and worse fatty livers were generally abandoned”. At this moment, the abdomen of the “donor” would have already been opened, but the liver would not have yet been removed.[58]

 

1.1 Preliminary inspection of donor liver quality

 

A large cross incision in the abdomen was cut to allow the doctor to pull the right costal arch open to observe the surface color of the donor liver, whether there were lipid particles on the liver surface, and whether the lower edge of the liver was sharp. If the lower edge of the liver had become blunt, its surface had become yellow and lipid particles were visible, the organ would be determined to be a fatty liver. According to the level classification of mild, moderate and severe fatty livers, the excision of the donor liver would be determined. Generally, moderate and worse fatty livers would be abandoned, because if such fatty livers were transplanted, the situation of primary liver non-function or delayed graft liver function recovery would likely occur.

Regarding the livers that had already been excised, there would also be an on-site
“intraoperative laboratory test” to directly determine whether the donor livers were going to be kept or not.

 

1.2 Intraoperative Laboratory Tests

 

The results of intraoperative laboratory tests directly determine whether to retain the donor livers or not. Our center practices on-site rapid testing for each donor, including blood type, liver functions, syphilis and HIV. In the on-site operation, a blood sample diluted with equal amount of water would be dripped into the window, or one drop of the original blood would be dripped into the window, before the buffer or isotonic saline is dripped. Then wait for 20 minutes to observe the results from the window. To ensure accuracy of the test, three sets of test papers could be used.

Although the title of the paper mentioned “cadaveric livers”, the warm ischemia times of all donor livers were nevertheless indicated as within 10 minutes, the excision times were within 30 minutes, and the cold ischemia times were within 12 hours. The paper mentioned that “their livers were excised after they became brain-dead”. It’s possible that living donors were sent to the excision site, and the donors were killed during the excision process.

 

2. Extremely short organ wait times and the phenomenon of reverse organ matching

 

The United States has a large organ donation system. According to a report by the United States Department of Health and Human Services in 2007, the average wait times for a liver and a kidney in the United States were two and three years, respectively.[59]

 

2.1 The hospital’s official report on its organ transplantation

 

According to the official website of the Orient Organ Transplant Center, its average wait time for organs in 2005 was two weeks.[60] 

 

2.2 Field investigation

 

In 2017, several South Korean reporters went to China to conduct field investigations. The wait times for organ transplants in the hospital were several days or weeks.[61]

 

2.3 Investigation Telephone Calls

 

On May 4, 2018, a WOIPFG investigator asked a doctor from the Liver Transplantation Doctors’ Office on the 8th Floor of Tianjin First Central Hospital, “Do you perform more than 1,000 cases like my friend said? Every year.” The doctor replied, “More than that. But among our several (surgery) teams, there are at least several hundred cases by each team.”[62]

(Recording 6-1. Download: MP3; Transcript Download: pdf 6-1)

On March 13, 2019, Orient Organ Transplant Center’s liver transplant surgeon Doctor Li (+86-22-23626857) said, “The wait time may be a month at most, may be a week at least. In general, one month is enough.”[63]

(Recording 7. Download: MP3; Transcript Download: pdf 7)

On March 15, 2019, Associate Chief Physician Li Jiang from the liver transplant doctors’ office at the Orient Organ Transplant Center (+86-2223626857) said, “We can get it done soon.” “Write down my mobile phone number: 138 2046 7120.” “We have so many, so many, so many directors...”

(Recording 8. Download: MP3; Transcript Download: pdf 8)

 

3. Multiple surgeries are performed simultaneously

 

Tianjin First Central Hospital can perform multiple and even several dozen kidney and/or liver transplants on the same day or at the same time. It is impossible to obtain such large number of suitable organs from executed prisoners on the same day.

Xinhua Net (Tianjin) reported on February 7, 2005 that the Orient Organ Transplant Center completed 108 liver transplants (four to five liver transplants every day, if surgeries were performed on only five working days per week) and 43 kidney transplants in January 2005.[64] A patient’s family told Phoenix Weekly that the transplant center once performed as many as 24 liver and kidney transplants in one day.[65] The Orient Organ Transplant Center is capable of doing nine liver transplants and eight kidney transplants simultaneously.[66]

 

IV. Overseas collaboration and business advertisements for foreign investments

 

1. Overseas collaboration: “organ laundering” by overseas medical foundations

 

In July 2006, with funding from the United States-based China Medical Board, Inc., Tianjin First Central Hospital established the “China Liver Transplant Training Center” and held four national clinical liver transplant conferences.[67] The organ transplant center that Shen Zhongyang was ordered to build assisted 66 medical units in 22 regions across China to carry out clinical liver transplantation, accounting for two-thirds of the country’s existing liver transplant centers.[68]

 

2. Overseas business advertisement: years of organ transplant tourism boom

 

Sanlian Life Weekly reported in 2004 that in just a few years, tens of thousands of overseas patients had come to China for organ transplants, setting off an “organ transplant tourism”. This article described the thriving organ transplant tourism: “In addition to South Koreans, Tianjin First Central Hospital (aka. the Orient Organ Transplant Center) also has patients from nearly 20 countries and regions in Asia, including Japan, Malaysia, Egypt, Pakistan, India, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan.” Phoenix Weekly also reported that mainland China had become an emerging center for organ transplants worldwide.[69]

As of 2017, organ transplant tourism was still booming.

Huang Jiefu, chairman of the China Human Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee, was interviewed by Shenyidu (a reporting column of Beijing Youth Daily with online ID: intodeepthoughts) during the two sessions of the Chinese Communist Party in March 2017, claiming that the “organ transplant tourism” was extinct in China as of the previous year (2016).[70] However, in 2017, several South Korean reporters went to China to conduct field investigations and discovered that the Orient Organ Transplant Center has an international diagnosis and treatment center and dedicated inpatient service sections for foreign transplant patients. A large number of South Koreans and Middle Easterners come here for transplant operations every year. In 2017, Middle Eastern patients outnumbered Korean patients. The staff of the hospital said that the government had banned transplant tourism, but they just turned a blind eye to it.[71]

 

V. China’s research field of organ transplantation focuses on “live organ harvesting”

 

1. The CCP designates organ transplantation as a national industry and includes it in the research and development of many national projects

 

Shen Zhongyang is currently the chief expert of the organ transplantation key technology projects of the National 863 Program, the subject matter expert of the biological and medical technological field of the National 863 Program, the deputy chairman of the Organ Transplantation Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, and the fifth chief editor of “China Critical Care and Emergency Medicine”, member of the editorial board of “Chinese Journal of General Surgery”, “Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery” and other journals.[72]

In order to produce scientific research results and write medical papers, and to compete for awards, the organ transplant doctors have actively participated in a large number of organ transplant operations to obtain research data.

After 2000, since the establishment of its Organ Transplant Center and Organ Transplant Research Institute, the hospital has invested a total of 20 million yuan to carry out basic and clinical research related to organ transplantation. In 2010, “Clinical Research and Application of Liver Transplantation” won the second prize of the National Science and Technology Progress Award; in 2010, “Clinical Research and Application of Transplantation Treatment for Hepatitis B Virus-related Liver Diseases” won the second prize of the China Science and Technology Award; in 2010, “Liver Transplantation Post-hepatitis B Virus Biological Characteristics and Related Research” won the first prize of Tianjin Science and Technology Progress Award; in 2010, “Research on the Mechanism and Countermeasures of Tumor Recurrence after Liver Cancer Liver Transplantation” won the third prize of Science and Technology Award from the China Anti-Cancer Association; In 2007, “1,510 Adult Orthotopic Liver Transplantation Patients’ Perioperative Management” won the Fifth China Association for Science and Technology Journal Outstanding Academic Paper Award; and in 2000, “Liver Transplantation for End-stage Hepatitis B and Cirrhosis” won the Tianjin Science and Technology Achievement Award’s second prize.[73]

 

2. Organs from “brain dead” patients

 

The harvesting of organs from brain-dead organ donors is widely recognized internationally and protected by law. However, China has never had any brain death legislation or a sound organ donation system, so there are no “brain-dead organ donors” in China, voluntary or not.

A medical paper of Tianjin First Central Hospital stated that “2,195 liver transplants were performed from 2002 to 2006, and 2,500 donor livers were excised from cadavers. The healthy donors were all lab tested negative for hepatitises, syphilis and AIDS. Their livers were excised after they became brain-dead.”[74] [75]

How is it possible to quickly excise the liver from a healthy “brain-dead” donor to achieve a short warm ischemia time? The only explanation is that these healthy donors were living people, when their livers were excised.

The time from the organs losing their donors’ circulation to cold perfusion was usually within 10 minutes. Such rapid organ excisions could only be achieved, when the time and place of the donors’ deaths could be predicted. Of course, the time and place of executed prisoners’ deaths could be planned in advance, but neither the number of executed prisoners nor the quality of their organs met the standards for organ transplantation. Then, there must be another group of “donors”, whose deaths could also be planned in advance, and their number is larger than that of executed prisoners, and their organs are of good quality.

 

VI. Investigate the crimes of Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin municipal government and the top officials of the Chinese Communist Party

 

As the number of organ transplants at Tianjin First Central Hospital suddenly increased on a massive scale, the Tianjin Municipal Health Bureau was optimistic about the prospects of this emerging organ transplant industry. The Tianjin municipal government announced in December 2003 that it would invest 130 million yuan to construct for Tianjin First Central Hospital a building dedicated to organ transplantation.[76] The Orient Organ Transplant Building, opened for business in 2006, has since become the largest organ transplant center in Asia.[77] According to media reports, liver transplantation alone could bring at least 100 million yuan in revenue to the center each year.[78] How much bloody money has the organ transplant center made in the past decade? On July 17, 2010, Zhang Gaoli, then Secretary of the Tianjin Municipal Communist Party Committee, inspected and encouraged the center to “continue to give full play to its advantages in organ transplantation.” In that year, the total liver transplants performed at the center accounted for one third of total liver transplantation cases in China.[79] How much was the Tianjin municipal government’s share? How much bribes were involved among the Tianjin officials of all ranks, including the police and those in the justice system, to allow and/or protect such crimes to take place? These bloody debts shall be settled one by one.

Shen Zhongyang’s career has been advancing along with his organ transplant volume. It would not have been possible without the instructions from Tianjin First Central Hospital, the Municipal Health Bureau or the top officials of the Tianjin municipal government, and even from the high-level CCP officials. After Shen returned to China in 1998, he successively served as the head of the Organ Transplantation Department at Tianjin First Central Hospital, the director of the Organ Transplant Research Institute and the vice president of Tianjin First Central Hospital. In 2007, he became the president of Tianjin First Central Hospital.[80] In just one decade, Shen Zhongyang went from a general surgeon to the president of a large comprehensive Class A tertiary hospital (the top grade of the Chinese hospital classification system). His every promotion is tied to his organ transplant operation performance. The competition among CCP officials is fierce. Many hospitals’ organ transplant department directors have been promoted to hospital vice presidents in charge of organ transplants, but only Shen Zhongyang made it to the hospital president in a short period of time. Shen Zhongyang also has both military and civilian titles, which is rare within the CCP’s system. This shows that Shen Zhongyang enjoys special privileges regarding organ transplantation.

Yang Han, a doctor at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University (+86-37166279137), revealed on June 2, 2018 that Tianjin First Central Hospital ranked first in China in terms of organ transplant volume.[81] However, there is no information, because they keep a set of data to themselves, without submitting it to their superiors. So there is no way to know how many organ transplant cases the hospital has performed. This is the evidence of the special privileges enjoyed by Tianjin First Central Hospital in organ transplantation and the seriousness of their crimes in live organ harvesting.

 

VII. List of Key Individuals Responsible for Live Organ Harvesting at Tianjin First Central Hospital

 

TJYZ001. Name: Shen Zhongyang

Gender: male

Date of birth: November 1962

Place of birth: Shenyang City, Liaoning Province

Profile: Shen Zhongyang is the director of the Organ Transplantation Center at Tianjin First Central Hospital, director of the Tianjin Organ Transplant Research Institute, director of the Organ Transplant Research Institute of the Armed Police General Hospital, and the president of Tianjin First Central Hospital. He enjoys special allowances for experts from the State Council, and he is a professor at Nankai University and Tianjin Medical University and a doctoral student supervisor. He is the chief expert of the organ transplantation key technology projects of the National 863 Program and chief expert of organ transplantation in the Core Group of the Central Health Committee.[82] (The Central Health Committee is an organization under the CCP Central Committee mainly responsible for the personal health of the CCP top officials.)

        

Shen Zhongyang presided over the completion of a liver transplant operation at the hospital in 1994. In 1998, he established the Organ Transplant Department, which later developed into the Orient Organ Transplant Center in 2006. At the same time, he established the largest organ transplant center in Beijing at the Armed Police General Hospital and served as the center’s director.[83] As of the end of 2014, his team had completed nearly 10,000 liver transplants.[84][85]

TJYZ002. Name: Zang Yunjin

Gender: male

Date of birth: October 29, 1964

Profile: Zang Yunjin is vice president of Qingdao University Medical Group, director of surgery and director of the Organ Transplant Center at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, and chief surgeon and professor at the hospital’s Institute of Organ Transplant Medicine.[86]

He is also deputy director of the Institute of Liver Transplantation at the Armed Police General Hospital, as well as chief surgeon and professor at the institute. He also holds positions as director and chief physician of the Liver Transplant Department of Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital, affiliated with School of Medicine, Shandong University. He is also director of the Shandong Branch of the Orient Organ Transplant Center, and chief surgeon at the Orient Organ Transplant Center of Tianjin First Central Hospital.[87] He is a physician member of the International Liver Transplant Society (ILTS), standing committee member of the Military Organ Transplant Professional Committee of the Chinese Medical Association, vice chairman of the Shandong Provincial Organ Transplant Professional Committee, a specially-invited expert of the Medical Expert Committee of Shandong Science and Technology Press and editorial board member of “Shandong Medicine” journal.

Overseas training experiences: From September 1999 to December 2000, he studied liver transplantation techniques as a visiting scholar, at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center’s (UPMC) Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, under the tutelage of John J. Fung, former president of the International Liver Transplantation Society. In June 2000, he was accepted as a physician member by the International Liver Transplantation Society.

In September 2001, after receiving transplant training in the U.S., he joined the Organ Transplant Department of Tianjin First Central Hospital and the Orient Organ Transplant Center, and he carried out liver transplants under the guidance of Shen Zhongyang. He was later able to complete liver transplants on his own and provided training for other hospitals in Hebei, Henan and Shandong Provinces in over 100 operations.[88] In January 2005, Zang joined the Armed Police General Hospital’s Liver Transplant Research Institute to perform liver transplantation, and he was appointed deputy director of the institute, chief surgeon and professor. Between January 2004 and August 2008, he performed 1,600 cases of liver transplantation.[89]

In February 2014, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University announced the establishment of its Organ Transplant Center and invited Zang Yunjin to become the center’s director. Zang has led his team to realize a so-called “leapfrog development”, and the center’s number of liver transplant operations ranked among the major domestic organ transplant centers, reaching the domestic advanced level. Its liver transplant volume ranked first in Shandong for two consecutive years, and was among top ten in China.[90]

 

TJYZ003. Name: Zhu Zhijun

Gender: male

Date of birth: March 1968

Profile: Zhu Zhijun is a doctor of medicine, chief physician, professor, doctoral student advisor and currently the vice president of Tianjin First Central Hospital.

He graduated from West China University of Medical Sciences with a six-year undergraduate degree in 1991, received a master’s degree in hepatobiliary surgery from the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital in 1998, and a doctor of medicine degree from Tianjin Medical University in 2011.

Zhu Zhijun is currently a member of the Fifth Committee of the Chinese Medical Association’s Organ Transplantation Branch, deputy chairman and secretary of the First Organ Transplantation Branch of the Tianjin Medical Association, member of the Organ Transplant Immunity Branch of the Chinese Society for Immunology, member of the Second Organ Transplantation Immunology Professional Group of the Chinese Medical Association’s Microbiology and Immunology Branch, member of the 4th Editorial Committee of “Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery”, member of the 6th Editorial Committee of “Tianjin Medicine”, member of the 1st Editorial Board of “Organ Transplantation”, member of the editorial board of “Chinese Journal of Endocrine Surgery”, member of the editorial board of the Chinese language edition of “Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation”, invited reviewer for “Chinese Journal of Organ Transplantation”, invited reviewer for “Chinese Journal of Surgery”, expert reviewer for “Journal of Clinical Hepatology”, evaluation expert of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, member of the Expert Group of the Human Organ Transplantation Clinical Application Management Committee under the Ministry of Health, member of the Tianjin Post-Graduation Medical Education Committee, and member of the Tianjin Human Organ Donation Expert Group.                     

He has completed more than 1,400 liver transplants of various types, including 150 living donor liver transplants and 40 split liver transplants. He is one of the surgeons, who have independently completed the most number of liver transplants in China.[91]

        

TJYZ004. Name: Cai Jinzhen

Gender: male

Date of birth: August 1974

Profile: Cai Jinzhen is a chief physician, doctor, graduate student advisor and Tianjin City’s “131” first-level talent. He is a graduate of the Class of 1993 from the Nan’an No. 1 Middle School in Fujian Province. He graduated from Nankai University (graduate studies) and later obtained a doctoral degree from Shanghai Medical University. He was a visiting scholar at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

He has been performing liver surgeries and organ transplantation operations for 15 years, has participated in the management of more than 2,500 liver transplant patients, and has participated in over 1,500 liver transplant operations.[92][93]

His expertise includes pediatric liver transplantation, adult liver transplantation, and multi-organ transplantation of pancreas, small intestines and other abdominal organs.                   

        

TJYZ005. Name: Song Wenli

Gender: male

Date of birth: October 1968

Profile: Song Wenli is chief physician and director of the Kidney Transplant and Pancreas Transplant Department at the Organ Transplant Center of Tianjin First Central Hospital. He is member of the Organ Transplantation Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, member of the Organ Transplantation Branch of the Tianjin Medical Association, member of the Tianjin Medical Malpractice Evaluation Committee, member of the Chinese Hospital Association Blood Purification Centers Branch, and editorial board member of the Chinese language version of Transplantation.

Song Wenli graduated from the Medical Department of Tianjin Medical University in 1992, worked in general surgery from 1992 to 1999, and began to work in organ transplantation and hemodialysis in 1999. As of now, he has completed an estimated total of more than 2,000 kidney transplants, including more than 80 living donor kidney transplants, more than 30 kidney transplants for elderly patients (over 70 years old), more than 40 combined liver-kidney transplants, and more than 70 combined pancreas-kidney transplants (among them, four cases were combined pancreas-kidney transplantation with portal venous and intestinal drainage, and 15 cases were combined pancreas-kidney transplantation with vena cava and intestinal drainage).[94]

 

TJYZ006. Name: Mo Chunbai

Gender: male

Date of birth: 1962

 

Profile: Mo Chunbai is an associate chief physician, member of the Kidney Transplantation Group of the Chinese Medical Association’s Organ Transplant Branch, expert member of the Tianjin Medical Malpractice Evaluation Committee and medical consultant of CCTV’s “Healthy Road” program.

Born in 1962, Mo Chunbai graduated from the Department of Military Medicine at the First Military Medical University in 1985, with a bachelor’s degree. From August 1985 to September 1992, he was an urologist at the PLA No. 309 Hospital. From September 1988 to September 1989, he attended the Third Military Medical University for advanced studies in urology and kidney transplantation. From September 1992 to September 1999, Mo Chunbai was a chief physician at the Department of Urology, the PLA No. 309 Hospital. From September 1999 to December 2003, he was an associate chief physician of the Organ Transplantation Center at the PLA No. 309 Hospital. Since January 2004, Mo Chunbai has been associate chief physician of the Organ Transplant Center at Tianjin First Central Hospital.

Mo Chunbai began performing kidney transplantation in 1988. During more than two decades, he completed over 1,500 kidney transplants, including nearly 30 cases of combined liver-kidney and pancreas-kidney transplantation.[95]

 

TJYZ007. Name: Gao Wei

Gender: male

Date of birth: December 1974

Profile: Gao Wei is a chief physician.

He graduated from Tianjin Medical University in 1999, majoring in a seven-year program of clinical medicine. After graduation, he worked in liver transplantation in the Transplant Surgery Department of Tianjin First Central Hospital. He successively served as a resident, general surgery chief resident, transplant surgery chief resident, and is currently a chief physician of organ transplant surgery.

He has been engaging in liver transplant surgery for more than a decade and has completed more than 800 liver transplant operations and more than 100 living related liver transplant operations.[96] He is an expert in living donor liver transplantation, pediatric liver transplantation and split liver transplantation.

 

TJYZ008. Name: Li Hui

Gender: male

Profile: Li Hui is a department director, Ph.D., professor, chief physician and supervisor for master’s degree students. He is committee member of the Shaanxi Society of Nephrology of the Chinese Medical Association, committee member of the Society of Chinese Medicine and Nephrology and member of the Standing Committee of the Society of Organ Transplantation.

In 2001, he studied for his Ph.D. at Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, under the tutelage of Professor Ye Qifa, a well-known organ transplant expert in China.

In the past few years, the department under his leadership completed more than 200 kidney transplant cases each year, and more than 150 cases have been completed by himself as the lead surgeon, ranking first in the Armed Police Forces and within the top 20 of major hospitals in China.[97]

 

TJYZ009. Name: Zheng Hong

Gender: male

Date of birth: 1965

Place of birth: Shenyang City, Liaoning Province

Profile: Zheng Hong is vice president of Tianjin First Central Hospital, chief physician and professor of organ transplant surgery, member of the International Society of Liver Transplantation, and member of the Organ Transplantation Branch of the Tianjin Medical Association.

He graduated from the Department of Medicine at the Jinzhou Medical College in 1987 and was assigned to the Surgery Department of Angang Hospital. He received a master’s degree and a doctoral degree in oncological surgery from the First Clinical Medical College of China Medical University, in 1994 and 2000, respectively. In July 2000, he joined the Organ Transplant Surgery Department of Tianjin First Central Hospital.

He is member of the Japanese Surgical Society, mainly engaging in the clinical and scientific research of liver transplantation. So far, he has completed more than 600 cases of liver transplantation.[98]

        

TJYZ010. Name: Deng Yonglin

Gender: male

Date of birth: 1966

Profile: Deng Yonglin is a chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center. He is member of the International Society of Liver Transplantation and member of the Organ Transplantation Branch of the Tianjin Medical Association.

After graduating from the Department of Medicine at Tianjin Medical College in 1988, he worked in clinical work in general surgery. He has been engaging in the clinical work of liver transplantation since 1999. So far, he has independently completed more than 600 cases of various types of liver transplantation.[99]

 

TJYZ011. Name: Pan Cheng

Gender: male

Date of birth: 1968

Profile: Pan Cheng is a chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center, member of the International Society of Liver Transplantation and member of the Organ Transplantation Branch of the Tianjin Medical Association.

He graduated from the former Zhongshan Medical University in 1992 and worked in general surgery after graduation. In 1998, he started to engage in liver transplantation clinical work. In 2001, he went to the Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh in the US, to study liver transplantation for one year.

Pan Cheng has independently completed more than 1,000 cases of whole liver transplantation and more than 100 cases of living donor liver transplantation. The liver transplantation procedures that he has carried out include classic bypass liver transplantation, classic non-bypass liver transplantation, piggyback liver transplantation, reduced-size liver transplantation, split liver transplantation, liver re-transplantation, living donor liver transplantation and pediatric liver transplantation.[100]
He has conducted in-depth research on subjects, such as donor organ harvesting and preservation, diseased liver resection, vascular anastomosis, liver transplantation preoperative and postoperative management, treatment of portal vein thrombosis in liver transplantation and living donor liver transplantation.

        

TJYZ012. Name: Liu Yihe

Gender: female

Date of birth: 1962

Profile: Liu Yihe is chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center and director of the Organ Transplant ICU.

She graduated from Tianjin Medical University in 1985. After graduation, she worked in the Emergency Medicine Institute at Tianjin First Central Hospital. She has been engaging in clinical medical work for acute and critical illnesses for two decades. She has served as resident physician, attending physician, associate chief physician and chief physician in the ICU ward. She is currently the director of the Organ Transplant ICU at Tianjin First Central Hospital.[101]

 

TJYZ013. Name: Wang Zhiping

Gender: male

Profile: Wang Zhiping is a chief physician of the Organ Transplant Center.

He has been engaging in urinary surgical work since 1985 and is good at diagnosis and treatment of various urological diseases. He started performing kidney transplantation in 1993.

Wang has experiences in performing several hundred cases of kidney transplantation. In 2005, he took the lead in carrying out related living kidney transplantation in Tianjin, and participated in the first domestic case of living-donor combined liver and kidney transplantation with the right half-liver and right kidney from the same donor at the same time.[102]

 

TJYZ014. Name: Liu Hang

Gender: male

Profile: He works at the Kidney Transplant Department of the Orient Organ Transplant Center.

Liu Hang graduated from Tianjin Medical University in 1989. He did advanced studies in the Department of Urinary Surgery at the State University of New York from 1996 to 1997. He started to work in the field of clinical kidney transplantation in 2001, and he has completed more than 200 kidney transplant operations since then.[103] He is an expert of diagnosis and treatment of end-stage renal diseases and postoperative management of kidney transplant patients.

 

TJYZ015. Name: Song Hongli

Gender: female

Profile: Song Hongli is director and chief physician of the Department of Liver and Kidney Diseases at the Organ Transplant Center of Tianjin First Central Hospital.

She graduated from the Department of Medicine at Jinzhou Medical College with a bachelor’s degree in 1987, received a master’s degree in gastroenterology from Dalian Medical University in 2001, and received a doctoral degree in clinical internal medicine from China Medical University in 2005. She has been doing clinical liver disease treatment for more than two decades. In 1995, she did advanced studies in the Department of Clinical Cardiology at the First Affiliated Hospital of Beijing Medical University. In 2005, she was transferred to the Organ Transplant Department of Tianjin First Central Hospital to work in the Department of Internal Medicine for Liver Transplantation.[104]     

 

TJYZ016. Name: Yang Tao

Gender: male

Profile: Yang Tao is an associate chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center.

He graduated from the Department of Clinical Medicine from Hebei Medical University in 1992, received a master’s degree in medicine from Hebei Medical University in 2000, and received a doctoral degree in medicine from Tianjin Medical University in 2003. Afterwards, he entered the Organ Transplant Center of Tianjin First Central Hospital.

He later started his clinical work in liver transplantation, as well as in the diagnosis, preoperative evaluation and surgery and postoperative management of common liver transplantation, pediatric liver transplantation and living donor liver transplantation, and the diagnosis and treatment of common hepatobiliary surgery.[105] He’s skilled at performing liver transplantation, living donor liver transplantation and pediatric liver transplantation.

 

TJYZ017. Name: Zhang Yamin

Gender: male

Date of birth: March 1973

Profile: Zhang Yamin is a chief physician and professor.

From September 1990 to July 1997, he studied in a seven-year clinical program at School of Medicine, Nankai University. In 2002, he received a doctoral degree from the Institute of Organ Transplantation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, under the tutelage of Professor Xia Huisheng, a well-known surgeon and founder of the liver transplantation discipline in China. From June 2010 to June 2011, he did advanced studies at the Organ Transplantation Research Center of the University of Chicago, USA.

Since July 1997, he has been working in the Department of Surgery at Tianjin First Central Hospital. He has served as general surgery resident, transplant surgery resident, attending physician, chief resident and associate chief physician. In 2011, he obtained the qualification of chief physician. He has been participating in liver surgery and transplantation for 15 years, and he has participated in the preparation and establishment of the organ transplant surgery department at Tianjin First Central Hospital. He has managed more than 800 liver transplant patients. He is able to perform donor liver extractions and new liver anastomosis, and he has independently completed more than 150 liver transplant operations. On behalf of the hospital’s Organ Transplant Center, he presided over more than 30 off-site group consultation liver transplant operations.[106]

 

TJYZ018. Name: Huai Mingsheng

Gender: male

Profile: Huai Mingsheng is a doctor of surgery and chief physician.

From February 2011 to July 2011, he studied at the Starzl Institute of Organ Transplantation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA, where he studied small intestine transplantation, multiple organ transplantation and perioperative management.

He has been engaging in liver transplantation and hepatobiliary surgery for 12 years. He is good at cadaveric donor liver transplantation, living donor liver transplantation and various surgical liver resections.[107]

 

TJYZ019. Name: Zhang Jianjun

Gender: male

Profile: Zhang Jianjun is a chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center.

He graduated with a bachelor’s degree in 1990, received a master’s degree in 1995, and received a doctorate in hepatobiliary surgery from Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University in 2001. He joined the Orient Organ Transplant Center in 2001, and he has been doing clinical liver transplantation work since. He has served successively as resident doctor, attending physician, associate chief physician and chief physician at the organ transplant center.

He has participated in more than 500 liver transplant operations. He has treated and managed more than 500 liver transplant patients and completed over 200 liver transplant operations independently.[108]

 

TJYZ020. Name: Liu Junduo

Gender: male

Profile: Liu Junduo is an associate chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center.

He graduated from the Second Military Medical University, under the tutelage of Professor Li Leishi, a well-known state-level expert in liver and kidney diseases and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Liu received a master’s degree, specializing in nephrology, blood purification, kidney transplantation, evaluation and preparation before kidney transplantation, and adjustment of immunosuppression plan after kidney transplant operations.[109]

        

TJYZ021.Name: Tian Dazhi

Gender: male

Profile: Tian Dazhi is an attending physician at the Organ Transplant Center.

He graduated from China Medical University in 2003. After graduation, he has been working in the Organ Transplant Surgery Department of Tianjin First Central Hospital. He has participated in more than 1,000 cases of liver transplantation, including more than 100 cases of living donor liver transplantation. He is skilled at donor organ excisions and diseased liver resections.[110]

 

TJYZ022. Name: Chu Zhiqiang

Gender: male

Profile: Chu Zhiqiang is an associate chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center.

As a doctor of surgery, he performs hemodialysis, and he is good at establishing vascular access, including long-term central venous indwelling catheter, formation of difficult arteriovenous fistulas, artificial vascular fistulas and repairing a large number of arteriovenous fistula occlusion cases. He has published three SCI articles and more than 10 articles in Chinese medical journals. He is an expert in liver transplantation.[111]

 

TJYZ023. Name: Zhang Wei

Gender: male

Profile: He is an attending physician at the Organ Transplant Center.

He graduated from China Medical University in 2002 with a master’s degree in surgery, and he later worked in the organ transplant surgery department of Tianjin First Central Hospital for six years. He has become proficient in various surgical techniques related to organ transplantation.

He has managed more than 400 patients of liver transplantation, kidney transplantation, pancreas transplantation, combined liver-kidney transplantation, combined pancreas-kidney transplantation and living donor liver transplantation.

 

TJYZ024. Name: Li Yanjun

Gender: male

Profile: Li Yanjun is a chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center.

He graduated from the Department of Medicine at China Medical University in 1987; received a master’s degree from China Medical University in 1996 and a doctorate in hepatobiliary surgery from China Medical University in 2002.

He has been engaging in clinical surgical work for more than two decades. He has completed several hundred liver transplants for liver cancer and liver cirrhosis.[112] He is an expert in liver transplantation.

        

TJYZ025. Name: Zhang Wenhui

Gender: male

Date of birth: 1970

Profile: Zhang Wenhui is an associate chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center.

He graduated from Dalian Medical University in July 1993, and received a Doctor of Medicine in Oncology degree from China Medical University in July 2001. He previously worked in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shenyang Medical College and Liaoning Province Cancer Hospital.

In November 2001, he joined the Orient Organ Transplant Center to engage in clinical work of liver transplantation, including donor liver excision and repair, liver transplant preoperative evaluation, and postoperative management of liver transplantation.[113] He is an expert in liver transplantation for liver cancer.

 

TJYZ026. Name: Meng Xingchu

Gender: male

Profile: Meng Xingchu is an associate chief physician and M.D. at the Organ Transplant Center.

He graduated from Jiamusi University Medical College with a bachelor’s degree in 1998. He was then admitted into a master’s program in the Medical College, majoring in surgery, and he graduated in 2001 with a degree. Afterwards, he was assigned to the organ transplant surgery department of Tianjin First Central Hospital and worked on liver transplantation. He started to study general surgery at China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University in 2002 and earned his doctoral degree in 2005.

He has been performing liver transplant clinical work since 2001, and he has completed more than 300 cases of liver transplantation, including about over a dozen living related liver transplants.[114]

 

TJYZ027. Name: Zhang Weiye

Gender: male

Date of birth: May 1975

Profile: Zhang Weiye is an associate chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center.

He graduated from Hebei Medical University in 1998, majoring in clinical medicine. Afterwards, he studied in a master’s degree program at Tianjin Medical University. He has been participating in organ transplant operations for many years.

He has managed more than 700 liver transplant patients. He has participated in more than 300 cases of cadaveric donor liver transplantation, over 40 cases of living donor liver transplantation, over 50 cases of kidney transplantation and several cases of combined spleen-kidney transplantation.[115]

 

TJYZ028. Name: Zhang Quansheng

Gender: male

Date of birth: 1969

Profile: Zhang Quansheng is an associate chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center.

He graduated from the Department of Medicine at West China University of Medical Sciences. After graduation, he was assigned to perform general surgery at Tianjin First Central Hospital. He was transferred to perform organ transplant surgery in 1998, and he has been working full-time in the field liver transplantation.[116]

 

TJYZ029. Name: Guo Qingjun

Gender: male

Date of birth: 1974

Profile: Guo Qingjun is an associate chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center. He is skilled at performing liver transplantation.[117]

 

TJYZ030. Name: Wang Lianjiang

Gender: male

Profile: Wang Lianjiang is an associate chief physician at the Gallbladder Surgery Center.

He graduated from Dalian Medical University in 2001. He worked in general surgery and later in hepatological surgery at Tianjin First Central Hospital. He has been performing organ transplantation and hepatological surgeries. He is skilled at liver transplantation and perioperative management.[118]

 

TJYZ031. Name: Wu Di

Gender: male

Profile: Wu Di is a chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center and a doctor of general surgery.

He graduated with a master’s degree in clinical medicine from a seven-year clinical medicine program at the School of Medicine, Nankai University in June 2000. He then graduated with a doctoral degree in surgery from Capital Medical University in June 2005. He performs liver surgeries and liver transplants.[119]

 

TJYZ032. Name: Cui Zilin

Gender: male

Profile: Cui Zilin is an associate chief physician at the Hepatological Surgery Center.

He graduated with a master’s degree in clinical medicine from a seven-year clinical medicine program at the School of Medicine, Nankai University in June 2003. He then graduated with a doctoral degree in surgery from the Second Military Medical University in June 2010.

As an organ transplant surgeon, Cui has rich clinical experiences and solid clinical surgical fundamentals and skills. He’s skilled at performing liver transplants.[120]

 

TJYZ033. Name: Wang Kai

Gender: male

Profile: Wang Kai is an associate chief physician.

He started doing clinical cardiovascular surgical work in July 1997. He sequentially worked at the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Chest Hospital and the Cardiovascular Surgery Department at TEDA International Cardiovascular Hospital.

He was transferred to Tianjin First Central Hospital in 2009 to perform cardiovascular surgeries. He’s especially good at heart transplant surgeries and postoperative management. He has participated in multiple heart transplants as the surgical first assistant.[121]

 

TJYZ034. Name: Kong Xiangrong

Gender: male

Date of birth: 1963

Profile: Kong Xiangrong is the director of the cardiovascular surgery department.

He graduated from Harbin Medical University in 1987. He was promoted to attending physician in 1992 and to associate chief physician in 1996. He was elected vice president of Mudanjiang Cardiovascular Disease Hospital in Heilongjiang Province in 1996. He was promoted exceptionally to chief physician in 2000. He served as president of Mudanjiang Cardiovascular Disease Hospital, assistant to the president of the TEDA Cardiovascular Hospital and the hospital’s cardiac surgery department director. He is recognized by the State Council as an expert with special contribution and enjoys the State Council’s special allowance. He was employed as the head of the Cardiovascular Surgery Program of Heilongjiang Province. He is currently the Cardiovascular Surgery Department director at Tianjin First Central Hospital.

He went to Australia and studied coronary artery bypass operations and heart transplantation at The Prince Charles Hospital in 2000. He went to New York, U.S. for further studies in 2002. And he has visited the U.S., Germany, Japan, France, United Kingdom, Switzerland, the Netherlands and other countries multiple times for academic exchanges. Kong Xiangrong started performing heart transplants and clinical work for heart and lung transplantation in 1991. He was one of the first doctors that participated in two heart and two cardiopulmonary transplant operations in 1992. He was awarded Life Technology Advancement Third Prize for his heart transplant works by the Ministry of Health. He has participated in and operated several dozen heart transplants and is one of the earliest cardiovascular specialists, who do heart transplant clinical and research work on in China.[122]

 

TJYZ035. Name: Ma Hongshun

Gender: male

Profile: Ma Hongshun is a chief physician at the Organ Transplant Center. He is good at performing kidney transplants.[123]

 

TJYZ036. Name: Zhang Weidong

Gender: male

Profile: Zhang Weidong is a chief physician and the director of the Thoracic Surgery Department, a professor and a master’s degree student supervisor.

He studied at University of Pittsburgh in the U.S. and directed the first lung transplant in Tianjin City.[124]

 

TJYZ037. Name: Zhang Rui

Gender: female

Profile: Zhang Rui is a chief physician.

She graduated from Tianjin Medical University in 1987. She has been working in the clinical ophthalmology field for over two decades. She is skilled at performing cornea transplantation.[125]

 

TJYZ038. Name: Song Li

Gender: male

Profile: Song Li is the deputy director of the Third Surgery Department and a chief physician.

He graduated from the Forth Military Medical University. And he is skilled at performing kidney transplantation.[126]

 

TJYZ039. Name: Wang Pengzhi

Gender: male

Profile: Wang Pengzhi is a chief physician of the General Surgery Department. He is currently the director of Tianjin General Surgery Research Institute.

He graduated from the faculty of medicine at Tianjin Medical University in 1962. He did postdoctoral researches related to organ transplant surgeries at Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry at University of Western Ontario. He has deep attainments in multiple medical fields, such as abdominal organ transplantation. He presided over clinical small intestine and liver transplant operations, and this made his hospital one of the international institutions for small intestine transplantation.[127]

 

TJYZ040. Name: Zhu Liwei

Gender: male

Date of birth: August 1946

Profile: Zhu Liwei is a chief physician, director of the General Surgery Department, executive deputy director of the Tianjin General Surgery Research Institute, deputy director of the General Surgery Teaching and Research Institute and a professor of general surgery. He is also a vice chairman of the Organ Transplant Branch of Tianjin Medical Association. He graduated from Tianjin Medical University in 1970.

He did his postgraduate studies at the University of California in the U.S. from 1985 to 1987. He studied again in the U.S. from 1999 to 2000. He completed the second case of clinical small intestine transplantation in China. He directs the liver transplant work in the hospital.[128]   

 

TJYZ041. Name: Liu Tong

Gender: male

Profile: Liu Tong is executive deputy director of General Surgery Teaching and Research Office, executive deputy director of the General Surgery Department and the deputy director of Tianjin General Surgery Institute.

He graduated from the department of medicine at Tianjin Medical College in 1987. Since then, he has been working in general surgery at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. He obtained his master’s degree in medicine in 1994. He obtained his M.D. in 1997. He studied and researched clinical diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal tumors at Kurume University Hospital in Japan in 1999. In 2004, he conducted basic and clinical research and training in abdominal organ transplantation at the Starzl Institute of Transplantation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA.[129]

        

TJYZ042. Name: Zhang Zhixiang

Gender: male

Date of birth: August 1963

Profile: Zhang Zhixiang is Communist Party Branch secretary of the General Surgery Department, and the department’s executive deputy director and chief physician.

He graduated from the department of medicine at Tianjin Medical College in 1986 and graduated from a master’s degree program at the Graduate School at Tianjin Medical University in 2000. After finishing his studies at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital affiliated with Shanghai Second Military Medical University, he started a series of complicated hepatobiliary surgeries. He has some experiences in surgery treatment of liver cancer, hilar cholangioarcinoma, pancreas cancer and portal hypertension.[130]

 

TJYZ043. Name: Tian Weijun

Gender: male

Profile: Tian Weijun is deputy director of the General Surgery Department. He mainly works on clinical surgeries related to liver and kidney transplantation.[131]

 

TJYZ044. Name: Wang Hao

Gender: male

Profile: Wang Hao is a professor of general surgery and editorial board member of “Practical Journal of Organ Transplantation”.

He has been working in the field of medical treatment, training and research both domestically and internationally for 24 years. He obtained a master’s degree in surgery from Tianjin Medical University. During he studies and work in Canada, he sequentially obtained a master’s degree and a doctorate of immunology and pathology from the University of Western Ontario.

From 2003 to 2012, he was successively employed as assistant professor, associate professor and doctoral student’s advisor at the University of Western Ontario, director of the Microsurgery and Immune Transplant Center and a scientist at Lawson Health Research Institute and in the Multi-Organ Transplant Program of the London Health Sciences Centre. He participated in the first case of small intestine transplantation in Tianjin in 1995. At the same time, he created the first microsurgical model of mouse small intestine transplantation, and he also started the research on the reactive mechanism of organ transplantation immune rejection.[132]

 

TJYZ045. Name: Zhang Bai

Gender: male

Profile: Zhang Bai is a general surgery doctor.

In addition to general surgery, he has also participated in some major clinical research projects in the department for many years. The projects include small intestine and liver transplantation. He does clinical work, staff administration and logistics.[133]

 

TJYZ046. Name: Zhang Peng

Gender: male

Date of birth: September 1960

Profile: Zhang Peng is vice president of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital Airport Hospital, director of the Cardiopulmonary Surgery Department at Tianjin

Medical University General Hospital, chief physician and professor. He graduated from the faculty of clinical medicine at Tianjin Medical University in 1984 and received a bachelor’s degree.

He performed the first case of orthotopic allograft heart transplantation after the removal of the left ventricular assist pump in Asia.[134]                

 

TJYZ047. Name: Zhang Hui

Gender: male

Date of birth: January 1962

Profile: Zhang Hui is a chief physician and professor at the Urinary Surgery Department.

He graduated from the department of medicine at Tianjin Medical University in 1985. After graduation, he has been working at the Urinary Surgery Department in Tianjin Medical University.

He was a resident doctor from 1985 to 1991, an attending physician from 1991 to 1998 and an associate chief physician from 1998 to 2003. He has been working on kidney transplant research in the recent years.[135] 

 

TJYZ048. Name: Peng Jie

Gender: male

Profile: Peng Jie is an associate chief physician in the Urinary Surgery Department. 

He graduated from Beijing Medical University in 1995. He has been doing clinical work in general urinary surgery, pediatric urinary surgery and kidney transplantation.

He studied organ transplantation at Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital in 2003. He’s skilled at performing kidney transplantation.[136]

 

TJYZ049.Name: Qiang Wanming

Gender: male

Date of birth: October 1945

Profile: Qiang Wanming is a chief physician in the Urinary Surgery Department.

He graduated from the department of medicine at Tianjin Medical College in 1970. He has been working in this college since then.

He worked in the General Surgery Department, Orthopedics Department and Thoracic Surgery Department in Tianjin Medical College (currently Tianjin Medical University General Hospital) from 1970 to 1977. He worked in the General Surgery Department for six years. He was transferred to the Urinary Surgery Department in 1978, and he has been working there ever since. He was promoted to associate chief physician in 1992 and to chief physician in 1997. He became a deputy director in the Urinary Surgery Program in 1993 and a director of the department in 1998. He also became the director of Surgical Training and Research Office in 1998.[137]        

 

TJYZ050. Name: Han Shunan

Gender: male

Date of birth: 1935

Profile: Han Shunan is a chief physician and professor in the Urinary Surgery Department.

He graduated from the Department of Medicine at Tianjin Medical University in 1960. From 1960 to 1963, he was an assistant professor in the Department of Pharmacology of Tianjin Medical University. From 1963 to 1968, he was a research assistant in experimental surgery at Tianjin General Hospital. From 1968 to 1972, he was a resident doctor of surgery at Tianjin General Hospital. From 1972 to 1978, he was a resident doctor in the Department of Urinary Surgery. From 1978 to 1986, he was a lecturer in urinary surgery. He was an associate professor of urinary surgery from 1986 to 1991, a chief physician of urinary surgery from 1991 to 1997, and a professor of urinary surgery from 1997 to present. In 1982, he served as the head of the urinary team of the Department of Surgery at Tianjin General Hospital. In 1986, the Department of Urinary Surgery was formally established, and he became the first department director. He retired in June 1998. He’s skilled at kidney transplantation.[138]

 

TJYZ051.Name: Shi Xiuru

Gender: female

Date of birth: May 4, 1946

Profile: Shi Xiuru is a chief physician of ophthalmology.

She graduated from Tianjin Medical University, majoring in clinical medicine. She is a chief physician, former director of the Ophthalmology Department and a former postgraduate student advisor. She helped introduce projects, such as cornea transplantation, into the hospital in the early stages.[139]

 

TJYZ052. Name: Hao Tiangeng

Gender: male

Date of birth: August 27, 1972

Profile: Hao Tiangeng is an associate chief physician in the Ophthalmology Department and an associate professor.

He graduated from Tianjin Medical University, majoring in clinical medicine in 1994. He then graduated from the Graduate School of Tianjin Medical University in 2001.

He studied at University of California, Irvine in the U.S. He has been performing cornea surgery treatment for over a decade.[140]

 

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