To investigate the criminal conduct of all institutions, organizations, and individuals involved in the persecution of Falun Gong; to bring such investigations, no matter how long it takes, no matter how far and deep we have to search, to full closure; to exercise fundamental principles of humanity; and to restore and uphold justice in society.

WOIPFG’s Investigation Report on the Suspected Participation of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University and its Liable Employees in the Crime of Live Organ Harvesting

December 12, 2020

 

Hospital: The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University

Address: No. 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China

Postal Code: 510080

Telephone Numbers: 87755766, 87332200 (switchboard)

The Organ Transplantation Department of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University is suspected to be one of the main birthplaces of live organ harvesting for transplantation in China. Its vice president He Xiaoshun and several doctors have admitted to their use of Falun Gong practitioners’ organs in transplants. The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University also has a “brain death center”, which is suspected to be a living human donor organ bank. By as early as 2010, the hospital had performed tens of thousands of organ transplants, and its individual doctors’ transplant volumes had reached several thousand cases per person. Its number of transplants in a single day was astonishing, up to 19 kidney transplants per day. The hospital has ample donor sources, and the patients’ organ wait times have been extremely short. For example, Huang Jiefu only spent a few hours to transfer several matching live donors, including one from this hospital, as backups for one of his operations.

Hospital Profile: The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University is a state-level tertiary Class A general hospital, composed of three hospital districts, including the hospital headquarters, Huangpu District and Dongshan District.[1] The hospital has more than 4,500 formal employees and 2,228 ward beds. The hospital has 61 clinical departments and 15 medical technical departments.[2]

I. Vice President He Xiaoshun and Several Doctors Have Admitted to Their Use of Falun Gong Practitioners’ Organs in Transplants

Telephone Investigation Recording 1

Subject(s) of Investigation: Dr. Han from Guangzhou’s First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University

Date: June 30, 2015 (Phone number: +86-2082375263)

Excerpts:

Investigator:  There are 36 concentration camps in China to imprison Falun Gong practitioners. So their organs are used for transplantation. When many patients heard this, they all requested for such donor organs. Why? Because these donors are all healthy and they are practitioners.
Dr. Han: Yes, that’s right. It is true that things were like that before. Now it doesn’t work that way because of the international society. 

(Recording 1. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 1 for transcript translation)

 

Telephone Investigation Recording 2

Subject(s) of Investigation: Wang Changxi, director of the Kidney Transplant Department’s Second Section at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou[3]

Date: November 15, 2018 (Phone number: +86-13600450862)

Excerpts: 

Investigator: I want to ask about the liver sources. You still use (those from) Falun Gong (practitioners), healthy donors, right?

Wang Changxi: All, all of them are. Now all donated ones are. All deceased citizen donors might all have these.

 

Personal profile: Wang Changxi is a professor, chief physician and PhD students’ supervisor. He is currently the director of his hospital’s Department of Organ Transplantation and concurrently the deputy director of its Surgery Laboratory. He is also a member of the international The Transplantation Society (TTS), a committee member of the Kidney Transplant Team of the Chinese Medical Association’s Urology Branch, and a member of the Standing Committee of the Guangdong Society of Organ Transplantation.

(Recording 2. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 2 for transcript translation)

 

Telephone Investigation Recording 3

Subject(s) of Investigation: He Xiaoshun, vice president of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University (First day)

Date: November 15, 2018 (Phone number: +86-13802510799)

Excerpts:

In general, it usually takes one or two weeks to arrange an operation, but sometimes [it would take] one month.

Investigator: Well, my question is: Are they the type of organs from Falun Gong (practitioners)? The organs themselves are healthy, right?                              

He Xiaoshun: Yes, right, right. Of course, of course.

(Recording 3. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 3 for transcript translation)

Telephone Investigation Recording 4

Subject(s) of Investigation: He Xiaoshun, vice president of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University (Second day)

Date: November 16, 2018 (Phone number: +86-13802510799)

Excerpts: 

Investigator: Since on one hand, it is the issue of skills, on the other hand, it is the issue of the organ. The organs you use, I know they are from Falun Gong practitioners, so the organs must be good. Combining these two factors, it would be perfect.

He Xiaoshun: Correct.

(Recording 4. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 4 for transcript translation)

Personal Profile: He Xiaoshun is a member of the International Liver Transplant Society, member of the International Society of Digestive Surgery, expert member of the Clinical Application Committee of the Human Organ Transplantation of the Ministry of Health, member of the Organ Transplantation Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, member of the Chinese Medical Association’s Surgery Branch, vice chairman of the Guangdong Provincial Liver Disease Society, and chairman of the Organ Transplantation Professional Committee.[4]

 

II. The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University has a “Brain Death Center”

On July 20, 2015, an organ transplant surgeon at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University revealed that there were “brain death centers” across China. Huang Jiefu serves as an honorary director of the hospital’s organ transplant center. This surgeon said that prior to the abolishment of the use of executed prisoners’ organs for transplantation, the Chinese Communist Party had already set up “brain death centers” across the country to guarantee the supply of living donors to organ transplant hospitals.

The “brain death centers” are actually an additional link between the living organ donor bank and the hospitals’ organ transplant operating rooms. When a person is made “brain dead”, he would be sent to a brain death center, to have his breathing and blood circulation artificially maintained, to shorten the warm and cold ischemia times, to guarantee the quality of his organs for transplant use. On the other hand, since the people stored there are “dead”, the psychological pressure on the transplant surgeons is much smaller than direct organ excision from the “living organ donor bank”.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University has a Brain Death Center

On July 20, 2015, Qin Han, a doctor from the Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Department at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, which is located in Guangzhou, told a WOIPFG investigator, “We specifically have a brain death center. It is located in our South China, and it belongs to our hospital. Huangpu Hospital (where the center is located) is about 40 minutes by car (from here). Our hospital has two campuses, both of which are in Huangpu. We do surgeries in the headquarters and excise organs in Huangpu. So there will be no so-called warm ischemia. We’re supposed to be in control of (the organs from braindead people in) the whole country right now. Yes, it’s definitely like this, because now, all over the country, because our center is dedicated to operating the organ transplantation (industry). Because all over the country now, the (organs of) so-called executed prisoners have been canceled. So it is like this in the whole country. Across China, in every major city…that is, in South China, we may be a center, an organ transplant center. For example, say the whole country uses organs, there are places that need this type… so someone would call (us) to come over to excise (the organ). After all, since we are the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, they generally don’t come here to take (our organs). We basically (use all our organs) within the city, basically in Guangzhou, unless there’s an organ that we do not want, such as a wasted organ, which we don’t want. If some other province happens to need that type, then they could come over to get it. The organs are mainly supplied to Guangzhou, and the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University takes the priority, because (the brain death center is) operated by us after all!”

(Recording 5. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 5 for transcript translation)

(Recording 6. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 6 for transcript translation)

Doctor of Liver Transplantation of the Third Transplant Area in the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University (August 3, 2017): “There are more donors than before. The donor (organs) are from the donation of braindead patients. The organs can’t be transported. If the transport time is too long, it will affect the functions of the organs. The state has a corresponding system of distribution, but the distribution principle is proximity. The organs are distributed by the state.” “The organs are excised from the (donated) remains first, and then the remains are delivered to the schools.”

(Recording 7. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 7 for transcript translation)[5]

Doctor of Liver Transplantation from the Second Transplant Area in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (September 26, 2017): “(Organ donors) come in batches. Sometimes several could come in, sometimes we would rest for a couple of days, then we have another batch of organ donor.” Donors would come into the hospitals, instead of organs. “Because our hospital has the qualification, we could excise (organs) by ourselves.”

(Recording 8. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 8 for transcript translation)[6]

 

III. There are Ample Donor Sources and the Organ Wait Times are Very Short

1. Huang Jiefu only used several hours to transfer several matching live donors as backups for his surgery

According to “Urumqi Online”, Sina.com and “Today’s Nurse” magazine,[7] in the afternoon of September 28, 2005, the then-Vice Minister of Health, Huang Jiefu, performed an autologous liver transplant at the First Teaching Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University and used three living people as back-up liver donors. One of them was found at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University within several hours.[8]

2. Emergency organ transplants are feasible

Usually, an emergency liver transplant is an emergency liver replacement operation for a patient of acute and severe liver disease, with a survival period of no more than 72 hours. Emergency liver transplantation is not common outside of China, due to the difficulty of emergency tissue typing and the long wait times for donors. However, in mainland China, emergency liver transplants have been widely performed in recent years.

Examples of Telephone Investigations

Telephone Investigation Recording 9

Subject(s) of Investigation: Jiao Xingyuan, director of Liver Transplantation of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou

Date: October 7, 2017 (Phone number: +862082379475)

Summary: “We estimate that it takes 10 days to half a month to find the liver.” “(We’ve done emergency liver transplantation before, so) I know that we are able to do it.”

(Recording 9. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 9 for transcript translation)

Telephone Investigation Recording 10

Subject(s) of Investigation: He Xiaoshun vice president and liver transplant specialist at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou

Date: February 25, 2016 (Phone number: +86+1380251 0799)

Summary: “(We) have performed 30 or 40 cases of liver transplants this year (i.e. in less than 2 months), and we do (liver transplants) every week. You have the blood type B. After coming here for 2 to 3 weeks, you can have (a surgery), no more than one month the longest.”[9]

(Recording 10. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 10 for transcript translation)

 

Telephone Investigation Recording 11

Subject(s) of Investigation: A doctor of liver transplantation from the First Transplant Area in the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University

Date: May 6, 2018 (Phone number: +86-20-28823388 ext. 8277)

Summary: The hospital can perform 200 cases (of liver transplantation) every year. A lot of liver transplants were performed in 2017, and 100 cases were already completed in 2018. The wait times would be one to three months. It’s possible to wait only one or two weeks.

(Recording 11. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 11 for transcript translation)

 

Telephone Investigation Recording 12

Subject(s) of Investigation: A doctor from the Kidney Transplantation Office at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University

Date: November 9, 2019 (Phone number: +86-20-87755766)

Summary: “If you are lucky, you may wait a week or two (to have the donor organ); but if you are not lucky, you can wait for two months or several months.”

(Recording 12. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 12 for transcript translation)

 

IV. The organ transplant department established by Huang Jiefu is suspected of being one of the main birthplaces of live organ harvesting for transplantation in China

Huang Jiefu, former Vice Minister of Health and the incumbent director of China’s National Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee, served as the president, vice president and director of the Hepatobiliary Surgery Department at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, as well as president, vice president and communist party committee secretary of the former Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) from 1987 to 2001.[10]

Huang Jiefu and Zheng Keli, a surgeon of kidney transplantation, established the Organ Transplantation Department at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University in 1996. The department was upgraded to become the “Guangdong Province Organ Transplant Research Center” in 1997. Since 1999, the number and clinical scale of kidney transplant operations at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University have always been among the top in China. In 2006, the center was approved by the Ministry of Health as a national kidney transplantation technical training base.[11] In the same year, it was awarded the title of “China Liver Transplant Training Center” by the China Medical Board (CMB) in the United States and became one of the three major training centers for CMB’s liver transplantation in China, training a large number of doctors in organ transplantation technologies. It has also held many national-level organ transplant related training and education projects.[12]

As a result, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University is regarded as one of the main birthplaces of clinical major organ transplantation in China.

V. The Hospital has Well-equipped Organ Transplantation Departments, Many Organ Transplant Surgical Teams and Large-Scale Organ Transplant Operations

The organ transplantation departments at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University consist of Organ Transplant Area One (liver transplant inpatient area), Area Two (kidney transplant inpatient area), Area Three (eastern hospital area), the heart transplant inpatient service department, the organ transplant laboratory, the liver transplant specialist clinic and the outpatient department of kidney transplantation.[13]

1. By as early as 2010, the hospital had performed tens of thousands of organ transplants.

As of 2017, the hospital’s official website stated that its Organ Transplant Center had carried out more than 7,000 liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and small intestine transplant operations.[14] According to an article published by a newspaper called “New Express” on October 9, 2010, as of 2010, the hospital’s Organ Transplant Center had performed liver and kidney transplants for over 10,000 patients.[15] The liver and kidney transplant volumes at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University have been consistently ranked the top among the several major organ transplant hospitals in Guangdong.

2. The hospital’s number of transplants in a single day is astonishing, up to 19 kidney transplants per day.

Guangzhou Daily reported on March 14, 2006 that a reporter witnessed five liver transplants and six kidney transplants being performed simultaneously in the operating rooms at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University. The reporter also mentioned that the hospital performed as many as 19 cases of kidney transplantation in one day; and its highest record of liver transplants is six cases of liver transplantation and one case of multi-organ transplantation in one day.[16]

Figure 1 Snapshot of the Guangzhou Daily webpage

3. A “famous remark” of He Xiaoshun, vice president of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, reveals the secret.

He Xiaoshun once said, “The number of liver transplants in the whole country in 2000 was 10 times that of 1999; and by 2005, the number tripled from that in 2000.”[17] This means that there was a 30-fold increase in the number of liver transplants from 2000 to 2005. The explosive growth of China’s organ transplants after 1999 coincides with the time period, during which the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) persecutes Falun Gong practitioners. This actually implies the earth-shattering crime that had not yet surfaced: behind the explosive growth of China’s organ transplant industry, it is the harvesting of living Falun Gong practitioners’ organs.

Phoenix Magazine Network published an article titled “The Inside Story of Human Organ Trafficking in China” on November 5, 2013. The article quoted the above mentioned remark from He Xiaoshun and inferred, “The year 2000 marked a watershed in China’s organ transplant industry.”[18]

Figure 2 Snapshot of the Sina News webpage in November 2013

In 1999, China had 118 cases of liver transplant.[19] According to He Xiaoshun, in 2005 alone, China’s liver transplants reached 5,192 cases. The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University claimed that they had “the most organ transplant categories in the entire country, and the total scale of organ transplants is second in the country.”[20]

4. The individual doctors’ transplant volumes at the hospital have reached several thousand cases per person.

Huang Jiefu, an honorary director at the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University,[21] told a journalist from Guangzhou Daily in March 2013 that he performed more than 500 liver transplants in 2012, and among them, only one transplant used a donated organ.[22] During an investigation telephone call on June 3, 2015, after hearing that Huang Jiefu did more than 500 liver transplants in one year, Dr. Han of the hospital’s Hepatobiliary Surgery Department said, “We have done more than 1,500 cases by now!”

Figure 3 Screenshot of a news article stating that Huang Jiefu performed more than 500 transplants in one year

Professor Zheng Keli, the chief physician of the hospital’s Urology Department, has presided over more than 3,000 kidney transplants.[23]

According to the official website of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University in 2012, Professor Wang Changxi, director of the Organ Transplantation Department, already had the clinical experiences of performing more than 2,000 cases of transplantation. Among them, more than 700 cases of kidney transplantation were performed by him as the main surgeon.[24]

As of February 2016, Zhu Xiaofeng, a professor in the Organ Transplantation Department, had performed more than 1,000 liver transplants, of which more than 600 cases were performed by him as the main surgeon. He has also performed 13 cases of upper abdominal organ cluster transplantation and 16 cases of combined pancreas-kidney transplantation.[25]

As of February 2016, Yuan Xiaopeng, associate chief physician of the Organ Transplantation Department, had participated in more than 3,000 kidney transplant operations and performed more than 500 kidney transplant operations as the main surgeon.[26]

WOIPFG released a list of organ transplant doctors in this hospital in 2014.[27] Among the liver and kidney transplant surgeons, we were able to discover from the hospital’s official website and medical papers that 53 of them had actually performed operations, including 16 chief physicians, nine associate chief physicians and eight attending physicians. The doctors at the hospital could form more than 10 liver and kidney transplant surgical teams.

 

VI. The Hospital’s Scientific Research and Technological Competition in the Organ Transplant Field

1. The hospital’s organ transplantation scientific research and technical achievements are based on a large number of clinical organ transplantation operations.

The hospital’s organ transplantation teams have received many awards in recent years. In 1998, their “clinical and experimental research on orthotopic liver transplantation for end-stage liver diseases” was awarded the first prize for scientific and technological progress by the Guangdong Provincial Science and Technology Commission. In 2003, their “orthotopic liver transplantation serial research” won the first prize of Guangdong Province’s Science and Technology Progress Award. Their “serial research to further improve the long-term curative effects of kidney transplantation” won the second prize of the National Science and Technology Progress Award from the Ministry of Education. Their “serial studies on cytomegalovirus infection after kidney transplantation” won the second prize of Guangdong Province’s Science and Technology Progress Award. In 2004, their “serial research on orthotopic liver transplantation” won the second prize of the National Science and Technology Progress Award. In 2009, their “technical innovation and fundamental research on abdominal organ transplantation” won the second prize of the China Medical Science and Technology Award. In 2011, their “fundamental and clinical research on abdominal organ cluster transplantation and combined organ transplantation” won the first prize of Guangdong Province’s Science and Technology Progress Award.[28]

2. The Chinese state has invested a lot of funds into projects related to the live organ harvesting.

The following is a list of research funds hosted by He Xiaoshun.[29]
  
1) A key organ transplantation technical sub-project of the state’s “863 Program” (aka. State High-Tech Development Plan): The diagnosis and treatment strategies for infectious diseases related to the survival of transplanted organs (2.88 million yuan, 2012-2015)

2) Guangzhou Municipal Science and Technology Project: The application value of MicroRNA molecular markers in predicting early rejection after liver transplantation operations (600,000 yuan, 2013-2015)

3) A hospital clinical discipline key project under the Ministry of Health: The Clinical and

Experimental Research on Improving the Quality of Donated Organs after Cardiac Death (4 million yuan, 2010-2012)

4) National Natural Science Foundation of China’s general project: The anti-apoptotic mechanism of Adiponectin in liver ischemia-reperfusion injuries (600,000 yuan, 2009-2012)

5) National Natural Science Foundation of China’s general project: The research on the regulation and mechanism of Calpain-2 on autophagy in fatty liver ischemia-reperfusion injuries (800,000 yuan, 2012-2015)

6) Special sub-project of scientific research in the health industry: The establishment, optimization and promotion of key technical standards for organ vitality assessment, organ in vitro repair and liver transplantation for donors after cardiac death (650,000 yuan, 2011-2013)

7) Sub-project of the National Science and Technology Support Program: Fundamental research on small-scale liver transplantation related applications (650,000 yuan, 2008-2010)

8) Sub-project of the National Science and Technology Support Program: Research on key surgical techniques of abdominal multiple organ transplantation (250,000 yuan, 2008-2010)

9) Guangdong Provincial Science and Technology Plan’s key project in clinical medicine: An open, forward-looking, randomized and controlled clinical study on the safety and effectiveness of tauroursodeoxycholic acid capsules for adjuvant treatment after liver transplantation (600,000 yuan, 2011- 2014)

10) A doctoral program from the special research fund for doctoral disciplines of the Ministry of Education: The regulatory mechanism and research of TLR4 signals of organ donors and recipients on regulatory T cells during organ ischemia reperfusion (80,000 yuan, 2011-2013)

11) Funding for work entrusted by the Department of Medical Service Supervision of the Ministry of Health: The study on the quality control standards of DCD (donation after cardiac death) donated organs (50,000 yuan, 2010-2012)

12) He presided over a key hospital clinical subject under the Ministry of Health: The experimental and clinical trials of split liver transplantation (2 million yuan, 2009-2010)

13) Guangdong Provincial Science and Technology Plan’s project: The experimental and clinical research on brain-dead donor livers as a source of organs for clinical liver transplantation (50,000 yuan, 2008-2010)

14) The Ministry of Education’s “Program for New Century Excellent Talents” (500,000 yuan, the Ministry of Education)

15) A Guangzhou Municipal Science and Technology Research Project: The experimental and clinical research on organ cluster transplantation and its immune tolerance formation mechanism (150,000 yuan)

16) Clinical research on orthotopic liver transplantation in the treatment of severe hepatitis (a key research project of the Guangdong Provincial Science and Technology Commission). (200,000 yuan, 2001-2003)

17) The relationship between the expression of adhesion molecules in bile and liver transplant rejection (National Natural Science Foundation of China) (80,000 yuan, 1996-1998)

VII. A Medical Paper Reveals Suspected Live Organ Harvesting

The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University used “tracheal intubation” before heart and lung excisions.

The hospital used two donors in two combined heart-lung transplants in 2006: “In both cases, the donors were male, 28 and 32 years old respectively, and both were diagnosed as brain-dead patients, without heart disease or any infectious disease.”[30] Their first step of excising the hearts and lungs is “pre-anaesthesia treatment”, including “tracheal intubation”.[31]

http://www.zhuichaguoji.org/sites/default/files/story/2014/09/44735_image005.png

Figure 4 An excerpt from the medical paper revealing a suspected case of live organ harvesting

An excerpt from the medical paper reads, “In order to shorten the blood collection time from the donor’s heart and lungs, the circulating nurses quickly opened the venous access, placed the donor in position (in a supine position, with the two upper limbs on each side of the donor) and fixed the donor properly. They assisted the anesthesiologist to perform the tracheal intubation after bronchoscopy.”

Since the two “patients” had already been “diagnosed as brain-dead”, they should have already had the tracheal intubation to maintain breathing. However, the above-mentioned organ extraction steps indicate that the “patients” did not have a tracheal intubation, and the “diagnosis” of brain death was directly reached without intubation to rescue them. This violated medical ethics and was against humanity.

VIII. Examples of Evidence of the CCP’s State Crime of Harvesting Organs from Living Falun Gong Practitioners

1. Bai Shuzhong, former director of the Health Division for the Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) General Logistics Department.

On September 30, 2014, a WOIPFG investigator called Bai Shuzhong, as a member of the Bo Xilai Special Investigation Team.

As the then-director of the Health Division of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) General Logistics Department, Bai played a key role in conveying Jiang’s order to slaughter Falun Gong practitioners for their organs. His term of office was between 1998 and 2004, which coincided with the peak time period of the CCP’s persecution of Falun Gong practitioners and its crime of live organ harvesting. In the telephone investigation recording, Bai clearly stated that Jiang Zemin gave a direct order to harvest organs from Falun Gong practitioners for organ transplant, and that there were multiple state apparatuses beside the military, which had been involved in live organ harvesting.

Investigator: “Here is the situation, when you were the director of the health division for the PLA General Logistics Department, regarding excising organs from captivated Falun Gong people for organ transplantation, was it an order from Wang Ke, the then director of the PLA General Logistics Department?  Or did it directly come from the Central Military Commission?”

Bai: “Back then, it was President Jiang. There was an order, a sort of instruction. It said to start carrying out this thing, which is organ transplantation. Later, President Jiang, (I) heard, issued an instruction, about people selling kidneys for transplant surgeries, this, I should say, it was not just the military that was doing kidney transplants.”

Investigator: “We also obtained some information, that is, back then, the Joint Logistics Departments (of the Military Regions) were responsible for detaining a batch of Falun Gong people as live organ donors, right?”

Bai Shuzhong: “This, this, back then, ah, I think, at least this is how I remembered, back then, yes. Because back then, after President Jiang issued the instruction, we all did a lot of anti-Falun Gong work.”

The recording clearly indicates that the live organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners was directly ordered by Jiang Zemin, and more than one government/CCP system besides the military was involved in live organ harvesting.

This telephone recording affirms the weight of the evidence WOIPFG has acquired from the military, armed police, regional government agencies and the judiciary and legal systems. All of these entities are suspected of direct responsibility for participating in the crime of live organ harvesting. It also expounds on the reasons behind this issue and confirms the judgment WOIPFG has made based on the collected evidence.
(Recording 13. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 13 for transcript translation)

2. Zhang Gaoli, then member of the CCP Central Politburo Standing Committee, vice premier of the State Council

On June 24, 2015, while Zhang Gaoli was on an official visit to Kazakhstan, a WOIPFG investigator, posed as a secretary working for Jiang Zemin, telephoned Zhang Gaoli.[32] When asked about Falun Gong practitioners filing lawsuits against Jiang Zemin for harvesting organs from millions of practitioners, Zhang did not deny the allegation at all. Instead, Zhang eagerly promised, “I will definitely … prevent this matter from being pursued at the Politburo’s meeting.”
(Recording 14. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 14 for transcript translation)
 

3.  Liang Guanglie, former minister of National Defense, member of the CCP Central Military Commission

Liang Guanglie is the former minister of National Defense and a retired People’s Liberation Army (PLA) general. He once served as the PLA chief of the general staff. A telephone investigation conducted by a WOIPFG investigator took place during his trip to the U.S. from May 4 to May 10, 2012. In this telephone investigation, Liang admitted that the Central Military Commission held meetings to discuss the issues of Falun Gong practitioners detained by the military and that the military hospitals were involved. Liang also suggested that it was the PLA General Logistics Department that should be contacted to collect related information rather than him.[33]
(Recording 15. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 15 for transcript translation)

4. Zhou Benshun, former secretary-general of the CCP Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission

In November 2008, Zhou Benshun, then secretary-general of the CCP Central PLAC, accompanied Zhou Yongkang, the director of the CCP Central PLAC, on a visit to Australia. A WOIPFG investigator posed as Yang Hui, the head of the Second Department of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) General Staff Headquarters, collected a testimony from Zhou Benshun about the massive live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners by the CCP. Zhou admitted, “Such a thing as live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners in our country, it does exist in our country.”

Zhou Benshun was the vice secretary-general and later secretary-general of the CCP Central PLAC from 2004 to 2013. Ultimately, he was one of the high-level officials and organizers involved in the implementation of live harvesting organs from Falun Gong practitioners.[34]
(Recording 16. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 16 for transcript translation)

5. Tang Junjie, former deputy secretary of the PLAC in Liaoning Province

Liaoning Province was suspected to be the first province involved in large-scale live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners. On April 13, 2012, when the former deputy secretary of PLAC in Liaoning Province, Tang Junjie, was asked, “What kind of directions or commands did Bo Xilai issue regarding the extraction of organs from Falun Gong practitioners?” He replied, “I was asked to take care of this task. The party central was actually emphasizing on this... At that time, we mainly discussed it during the meetings within the Standing Committee.”[35]

(Recording 17. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 17 for transcript translation)

6.  Intermediate People’s Court of Jinzhou, Liaoning Province

Investigation Subject: A criminal court police at the Intermediate People’s Court of Jinzhou

Investigation Date: May 22, 2006

A court officer from the first division of criminal law at the Intermediate People’s Court of Jinzhou stated clearly, “If your conditions (referring to the prices) are good, we can provide (organs of Falun Gong practitioners).”
(Recording 18. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 18 for transcript translation)

 

7. Testimony from an armed guards’ eyewitness account of live organ harvesting

Investigation Date: December 12, 2009

A police officer from Jinzhou City in Liaoning Province, who served as an armed guard at a live organ-harvesting site, testified that he witnessed the entire process of organ harvesting from a Falun Gong practitioner. The guard gave details to WOIPFG investigator concerning this extremely horrifying crime that he had witnessed.

On April 9, 2002, in a surgery room on the 15th floor of the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, he saw a female Falun Gong practitioner in her 30s, who was a middle school teacher. She had wounds and scars covering her entire body, as the result of a week of brutal torture, rape and force-feeding. The Public Security Bureau of Liaoning Province sent two military doctors, one from the Shenyang Army General Hospital of the PLA, and the other a graduate of the Second Military Medical University. One of them had military official ID No. 0106069. They did not administer any anesthesia to the victim and extracted her heart, kidneys and other organs while she remained fully conscious, killing her in cold blood. During the entire process, the eyewitness was present and stood to one side as an armed guard.

Aside from exposing the graphic details of the organ harvesting operation, the eyewitness disclosed additional information. He said that the Public Security Bureau of Jinzhou City had murdered numerous Falun Gong practitioners through various means of torture, and then they claimed that the deaths were results from suicides or accidents. Some Falun Gong practitioners had their brain pulp sucked out after they were killed. And even more evil things have been done to Falun Gong practitioners.(Recording 19. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 19 for transcript translation)

8. The CCP’s use of code numbers instead of names to identify secretly detained Falun Gong practitioners as sources within the organ pool

Subject(s) of Investigation: Chen Qiang, a kidney broker for the People’s Liberation Army No. 307 Hospital in Fengtai District, Beijing

Date: April 10, 2007 (Phone number: 86-10-13371621279)

A WOIPFG investigator spoke with Chen Qiang, a kidney broker who worked for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) No. 307 Hospital in Fengtai District, Beijing. He stated clearly, “If they could not find out the real names (of the organ donors), they just left code numbers, you know.” In addition, Chen emphasized that the authorities, the police and the prison system operated a supply chain in trafficking the organs of detained Falun Gong practitioners. Chen also said that he could provide materials to confirm that the organs were indeed from Falun Dafa practitioners.[36]

(Recording 20. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 20 for transcript translation)
 

9. A “610 Office” official admitted to live harvesting and selling Falun Gong practitioner Gao Yixi’s organs

Subject(s) of Investigation: Zhu Jiabin, head of the general department of the CCP’s “610 Office” in Mudanjiang City

Date: June 21, 2016

On April 19, 2016, Falun Gong practitioner Gao Yixi, a 45-year-old male residing in Mudanjiang City, Heilongjiang Province, was illegally arrested by five people led by Mudanjiang Municipal Public Security Xianfeng Sub-Bureau’s Yuanming Community Police Office’s patrol unit vice-captain Lv Hongfeng and was detained at the Mudanjiang Second Detention Center. On April 30, the police informed Gao Yixi’s family that he had passed away, his body was in Mudanjiang Sidao and they had already performed “an autopsy”.

On June 21, 2016, Zhu Jiabin, the head of the general department of the CCP’s “610 Office” in Mudanjiang City, Heilongjiang Province, directly admitted to a WOIPFG investigator that they harvested Gao Yixi’s organs, while he was still alive and sold them. [37]

(Recording 21. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 21 for transcript translation)

10. WOIPFG’s Third Investigation on Li Guowei

Subject(s) of Investigation: Li Guowei, Kidney Transplant Surgeon at the Xijing Hospital Affiliated to Air Force Medical University (aka the Fourth Military Medical University)

Date: January 11, 2020 (Phone number: +86-15929931212)

Summary:

1. Li said, “People under 30 years of age don’t have primary illnesses. We are talking about 30-year-olds. If you are lucky, we may find someone in his 20s, maybe younger than 20 years old, between 15 and 20 years old. This is all possible!”

2. The investigator said, “For this kind of Falun Gong (practitioner donors), some of them may also have organ problems. They are beaten so badly when they are demanded to ‘transform’ and to write a guarantee letter. Some people refuse to write it, then they would go on hunger strikes and go through force feeding, so their organs have been driven to the brink of failure.”

Li replied, “I know what you mean. When the time comes, as long as you are daring enough, then at that time...as long as you dare to take a look, (Investigator: OK!) I can bring you to the bedside and let you have a look, that is, to let you see with your own eyes that this person is in his 20s…I’m just afraid that you’re too timid to take a look. As long as you dare to take a look, you can.”

(Recording 22. Download MP3. Please refer to Appendix 22 for transcript translation)

 

Culprits:

ZSDX 001 He Xiaoshun

Name: He (last name) Xiaoshun (first name) 

Gender: male

Date of birth: 1964

A member of Chinese Communist Party

Job Titles: 2003.10-2009.4, Director of the Department of Organ Transplantation, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. From 2009.4-now, academic leader of organ transplantation in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, deputy dean, director of Huangpu District Management Committee. Vice President of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, member of the International Society of Liver Transplantation, member of the International Society of Digestive Surgery, expert member of the Clinical Application Committee of Human Organ Transplantation of the Ministry of Health of China, member of the Organ Transplantation Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, member of the Surgery Branch of the Chinese Medical Association , Vice President of Guangdong Society of Liver Diseases, Chairman of the Organ Transplant Professional Committee [38],having carried more than 1,300 liver transplants.

On November 5, 2013, "Southern Weekend" quoted He Xiaoshun in the article "Organ Donation Labyrinth": "The year 2000 was a watershed in China's organ transplantation." "The number of liver transplants nationwide in 2000 was 10 times that of 1999. This number tripled in the year 2005. [39]"

"Guangzhou Daily" reported on March 14, 2006 that 19 kidney transplants were performed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Sun Yat-sen University in one single day. At this time, He Xiaoshun was the director of the transplantation division. 

         Figure 5. Snapshot of Guangzhou Daily Webpage 

Operating Table: A Long Way to Go

Five liver transplants and six kidney transplants were carried out at the same time, which greatly broadened the reporter's horizon.

It is known that there are only a few hospitals in China that can perform more than 10 organ transplant operations in the same day, among which the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University is the best. The highest number of operations was 19 kidney transplants in a single day, while the highest number of liver transplants was six and one multi-organ transplant in a single day.

"Liver transplantation is the best treatment for post-hepatitis cirrhosis, liver failure, and kidney transplantation is the best option for patients with end-stage kidney disease, such as uremia." Professor Wang Changxi said. Perfect surgical operation is the basis of successful organ transplantation, and good tissue matching is another important factor affecting the outcome of kidney transplantation. A good match and a high degree of consistency will result in low incidence of post- transplantation rejection, good long-term effect, as well as a low dose of immunosuppressive agents. However, patients with poor match anastomosis may suffer a high incidence of rejection and poor long-term efficacy after transplantation. In this case, a reluctant transplantation is not good for some patients.

 

ZSDX002 Qiu Shaopeng

Name: Qiu Shaopeng

Gender: male

Date of birth: May 1958

Place of birth: Shantou City, Guangdong Province 

Personal profile: Chief Physician, Professor, Head of Division of Urology 

Doctoral degree, currently a professor of urology and doctoral supervisor. He began to work in Sempteber 1975, took his undergraduate education at Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences from 1978 to 1982. In 1990, he was admitted as a part on-the-job graduate student studied for a master's degree at Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences and transferred to a doctoral program. He gained his MD degree in 1994, half a year early than normal. He is engaged in clinical and research work of kidney transplantation [40].  

                 

ZSDX003 He Yulong

Name: He Yulong

Gender: male.

Personal profile: professor of gastrointestinal and pancreatic surgery, doctoral supervisor. 

Good at combined organ cluster transplantation to treat advanced gastrointestinal tumors [41]

 

ZSDX004 Fu Qian

Name: Fu Qian

Gender: female.

Personal profile: Assistant researcher of Organ Transplantation Department.  

Engaged in research on transplantation immunity and tissue matching for more than ten years. Good at perioperative management of kidney transplantation and long-term follow-up management of postoperative patients, tissue matching, immunosuppressant metabolic genetics and drug concentration monitoring, treatment of anti-HLA antibodies and acute/chronic humoral rejection before and after kidney transplantation[42].             

 

ZSDX005 Qu Jingsong

Name: Qu Jingsong

Gender: male

Date of birth: July 1968

Place of birth: Panyu, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province

Personal profile: Chief physician and professor of cardiac surgery  

Graduated from university in 1991 and received doctoral degree from Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Science in 2000. He has served as a clinical visiting scholar, postdoctoral fellow, and professor in the Medical Center of University of California Los Angeles and the Cardiovascular Center of Medical College of Wisconsin, the largest heart transplantation center and adult congenital heart disease center respectively in the United States, for nearly 6 years. recruited by the "Hundred Talents Program" of Sun Yat-sen University in 2008. Good at the diagnosis and medical treatment of various congenital and acquired heart diseases such as valvular disease, coronary heart disease and macrovascular disease. Main research direction: Pathogenesis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. He has presided over and participated in scientific research projects funded by NIH USA, Ministry of Science and Technology of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China and other scientific researches. Social part-time job: Academician of Chest Doctor of American University, Life Member of American Association for Outstanding Cardiovascular Academic Research, a member of American Heart Association, American Physiological Society and other societies, a judge committee member for cooperation project of science and technology and Guangzhou Overseas High-level Talent Recruit Plan.  

Good at heart transplantation [43].  

 

ZSDX006 Wu Zhongkai

Name: Wu Zhongkai

Gender: male.

Personal profile: Deputy Director of Cardiac Surgery, Chief Physician, Professor  

The main research direction is heart lung transplantation [44].  

 

ZSDX007 Zhou Jian

Name: Zhou Jian

Gender: male

Personal profile: organ transplant physician  

After graduating from Sun Yat-Sen University in 2012 with a doctorate in medicine, he worked in the Eastern Hospital of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University.  

During the master's degree program in 2006, he went to Tokyo Toho University for exchange study.  

Participated in more than 200 cases of liver transplantation (including living donor liver transplantation, split liver transplantation), upper abdominal organ cluster transplantation, combined liver and kidney transplantation, combined pancreas-kidney transplantation, small bowel transplantation, and kidney transplantation, liver transplantation and kidney transplantation [45]
           

ZSDX008 Sun Peiwu

Name: Sun Peiwu

Gender: male

Date of birth: November 23, 1931

Place of birth: Shangyu, Zhejiang

Personal profile: Professor of Cardiac Surgery  

On November 20, 1995, he carried out the first neonatal heart transplantation for HLHS in China (Asia) [46].  

 

ZSDX009 Wu Guoyong

Name: Wu Guoyong

Gender: male

Personal profile: professor and chief physician of thoracic surgery 

Research direction: Heart and lung transplantation (protection of heart and lung function) [47].  

ZSDX010 Wu Linwei

Name: Wu Linwei

Gender: male
Personal profile: Deputy Chief Physician of the Department of Organ Transplantation, Youth Member of the Organ Transplant Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, Member of the Organ Transplant Branch of the Guangdong Medical Association 

Main education and work experience:

1997.9-2002.7 Sun Yat-sen University, Bachelor of Medicine  

2002.9-2004.7 Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, master's degree 

2006.9-2009.6 The First Affiliated College of Sun Yat-Sen University, PhD student   

2004.7-2006.12 Department of Organ Transplantation, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, physician 

2006.12-2006.12 The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, attending physician  

2011.12-now the first affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, deputy chief physician.   

In 2007, he went to the Queen Mary Hospital of the University of Hong Kong attending research to learn the technique of living donor liver transplantation and perioperative management. Mainly research on hepatobiliary surgery, liver transplantation, kidney transplantation, pancreas transplantation, small bowel transplantation and abdominal organ cluster transplantation clinical work and basics, with more than 800 cases of clinical liver transplantation experience. He can independently perform general surgery such as hepatobiliary tumors and gallstones, as well as donor and recipient operations for liver transplantation [48].  

 

ZSDX011 Zhang Xi

Name: Zhang Xi

Gender: male

Personal profile: professor and chief physician of cardiac surgery 

Main education and work experience: 

1995.10-present: Professor, Head of Department, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen Medical University 

1987.11-1990.1: PhD student, lecturer, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Medical University 

1985.7- 1987.10: Attending, Lecturer, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen Medical University 

1982.7-1985.6: Postgraduate, Sun Yat-Sen Medical University 

1976.12-1982.6: Surgeon, Guangzhou Railway Central Hospital 

1976.12: Graduated from the Medical Department of Zhongshan Medical College. 

1992.6-1995.9: Associate Researcher, BUMC Cardiac Surgery, USA 

1990.1-1992.5: Postdoctoral fellow, NEMC, Tufts University, USA. Successively performed the first heart transplantation and combined heart-lung transplantation [49].  

 

ZSDX012 Xu Yingqi

Name: Xu Yingqi

Gender: male.

Personal profile: Chief physician of cardiac surgery 

1978.9-1983.7 graduated from Zhongshan Medical University with a bachelor’s degree 

1983.7-1989.9 Obtained a master's degree

1994: Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Finland, 

1983.7-Present Chief Physician of Cardiac Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University 

Proficiency in heart transplantation, etc., with rich clinical experience [50].  

                       

ZSDX013 Dai Yuping

Name: male.

Gender: male

Personal profile: chief physician, professor, doctoral supervisor, division director of urology. 

He has accumulated certain experience in diagnosis and treatment of kidney transplantation [51].  

ZSDX014 Zhu Xiaofeng

Name: Zhu Xiaofeng

Gender: male.

Personal profile: Professor of the Department of Organ Transplantation; Deputy Chairman of the Organ Transplant Professional Group of the Guangdong Provincial Society of Liver Diseases; Secretary of the Human Organ Transplant Clinical Application Committee of the Guangdong Provincial Department of Health; Member of the Standing Committee of the Guangdong Provincial Society of Organ Transplantation 

Main education and work experience: 

Graduated from undergraduate degree in 1983 and began to work in general surgery; received a master's degree in surgery in 1985; received a doctorate in 1994; promoted to associate professor in 1994; worked in the Department of Organ Transplantation, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou at the end of 1996, promoted to professor in 2000, and became a doctoral supervisor in 2003 , Deputy Director of Transplantation Department, third-level professor. From 1995 to 1996, he went to Germany for postdoctoral research in general surgery and organ transplantation. He started organ transplantation in 1991 and has performed more than 1,000 liver transplants so far (2014?), of which more than 600 have been performed by himself personally. The main surgical types completed include classic, piggyback, modified piggyback, volume reduction and pediatric liver transplantation, combined liver and kidney transplantation, etc., and successfully performed the first upper abdominal organ transplant in Asia (13 cases have been completed). Successfully performed cases first in Asia of combined liver and small bowel transplantation, the first domestic liver transplantation with two livers and three recipients, the first domestic liver transplantation combined with pancreaticoduodenectomy, mother-child parent-child small bowel transplantation, and the first living-donor right liver transplantation (with middle hepatic vein) in South China , the first domestic liver transplantation, the first joint pancreas-kidney transplantation in Sun Yat-sen University (16 cases have been completed), etc [52]

                 

ZSDX015 Li Jun

Sex: male       

Personal Profile: Deputy Chief Physician of Organ Transplantation Department2001-2004: Master program of Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University,

2008-2011, PhD program, Sun Yat-sen University

He has been engaged in kidney transplantation for 13 years, carrying out more than 80 cases of kidney transplantation every year [53].

                 

ZSDX016 Yin Shengli

Sex: male.

Personal Profile: Chief Physician of Cardiac Surgery Devision

Education Background:

November 2003 - June 2004: Infant thoracic surgery training at the Children's Heart Center, UCSF, USA, received a certificate on Treatment of Infant Heart Disease and Cardiopulmonary Transplantation, under the mentoring of Prof. Tom R. Karl and Prof. Hoops.

September - October 1999: Heart transplantation training at the Berlin Heart Center, Germany, under the mentoring of Professor Yuguo Weng.

September 1992 - July 1995: Master program of Cardiac Surgery supervised by Professor Sun Peigu.

September 1982 - July 1988: (Undergraduate study at) the Department of Clinical Medicine, Sun Yat-sen Medical College.

 

Work Experience:

December 2006 - present: Chief Physician of Cardiac Surgery Devision of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

November 2003-June 2004: Visiting Scholar for clinical study at the Infant Thoracic Surgery of Children's Heart Center in UCSF, US.

December 1999-November 2006: Associate Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Associate Chief Physician

December 1993-November 1999: Attending Physician of Cardiac Surgery Department

July 1988-November 1993-Resident Physician in Surgery received a certificate on Treatment of Infant Heart Disease and Cardiopulmonary Transplantation, under the mentoring of Prof. Tom R. Karl and Prof. Hoops.           

November 2003-June 2004: Training at the Infant Thoracic Surgery of Children's Heart Center in UCSF, United States, Infant Heart Disease Treatment and Heart Lung Transplantation (certificate), Tutor: Prof. Tom R. Karl and Prof. Hoops.

September - October 1999: Heart transplantation training at the Berlin Heart Center, Germany, under the mentoring of Professor Yuguo Weng.           

After returning to China, assisted the department to carry out two cases of the youngest combined heart and lung transplantation in China and the first adult heart transplantation in Sun Yat-sen University [54].

                 

ZSDX017 Jiao Xingyuan

Sex: male.

Personal Profile: Professor of organ transplant surgery, Director of the Third District of Transplant Surgery Department.
In July 1991, he graduated from The Medical College of Xi 'an Jiaotong University (formerly Xi 'an Medical University), received his bachelor's degree of medicine in the same year, graduated and received his master's degree and doctor's degree In July 1997 and July 2000 respectively, under the supervising of Professor Shi Jingsen. Since July 2000, he had been engaged in post-doctoral research in the Clinical Medicine Pos-doc Research Station of Sun Yat-sen University under the mentoring of Professor Huang Jiefu. In September 2002, he entered the Hepatobiliary Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College after leaving the pos-doc station. In 2011, he was taken by the Organ Transplant Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University as a discipline backbone and served as the Director of the Third District of Transplant Surgery Department.

In January 2005, he went to The Department of Organ Transplant-General Surgery, Essen School of Medicine, Duisburg-Essen University, Germany, and worked as a postdoctoral researcher under the tutorship of Professor Broelsch CE, the President of the European Society of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas and the Society of Organ Transplantation.     

Mastering of liver transplantation [55].

                                              

ZSDX018 Xiong Mai

Sex: male.

Personal Profile: Associate chief physician of cardiac surgery department

Major Education and work Experience:

September 1993 ~ July 2000: Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences, seven-year master's program.

July 2000 ~ December 2003: The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University Cardiothoracic Surgery Residency.

August 2003 ~ April 2004: Participation in the establishment of the cardiac surgery department of the Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical College.

December 2003 ~ December 2009: Attending physician of cardiothoracic surgery and cardiac surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

September 2005 ~ December 2008: Doctoral student of cardiac surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

December 2009 to present: Associate chief physician of cardiac surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

November 2010 ~ January 2012: A member of the 11th Service Mission under the Organization Department of the CCP Central Committee, temporary in the Cardio-cerebrovascular Disease Hospital of the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University       

Since 1998, he has been specialized in cardiac surgery and received standardized training for master's and doctor's degrees. He is mainly engaged in the diagnosis and treatment and perioperative management of heart transplantation and heart-lung transplantation [56].

                 

ZSDX019 Wang Dongping

Sex: male

Date of Birth: October 1965

Place of Birth: Shangqiu city, Henan Province

Personal Profile: Associate chief physician of organ Transplantation Department

Graduated with a bachelor's degree in 1988, a master's degree in 1995, and a doctor's degree in 2002. Engaged in thoracic surgery, pediatric surgery, emergency surgery, general surgery for years. Engaged in liver transplantation for 10 years.                          

Mainly engaged in the clinical and scientific research of liver transplantation, pancreas transplantation, small intestine transplantation and multi-organ transplantation.[57]

 

ZSDX020 Wang Guodong

Sex: male       

Personal Profile: Associate professor of organ transplantation       
 

Education and Work Experience:
August 1988 ~ July 1993: Xinxiang Medical College, Henan

August 1993 ~ July 1994: Regional People's hospital of Nanyang, Henan
August 1994 ~ July 1997: Master student of Sun Yat-Sen Medical University
July 1997~ April 2002: The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University
July 2000 ~ October 2005: Doctoral student of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University
October 2005 ~ present: The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University. Senior visiting scholar and postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania (Upenn) of the United States from 2002 to 2005, received training on living donor liver transplantation and pediatric liver transplantation, and conducted experimental research on liver regeneration after liver transplantation.

Has been engaged in liver surgery, liver transplantation surgery and pancreatic kidney transplantation for more than 18 years. Familiar with perioperative management and long-term follow-up of liver and pancreas transplant patients, including donor surgery, organ repair, transplantation, vascular biliary tract reconstruction. Focus on liver surgery, liver transplantation and pancreatic kidney transplantation[58] .          

 

ZSDX021 Wang Xiaoping

Sex: male.      

Personal Profile: Attending physician of the Organ Transplantation Department                          

Graduated from the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Master of Clinical hepatobiliary surgery, doctor degree of clinical liver transplantation [59].

                                              

ZSDX022 Wang Zhiping

Sex: male

Date of Birth: February 1956

Place of Birth: Qiyang County, Hunan Province

Personal Profile: Professor and chief physician of cardiac surgery [60].                                  

December 2012 - present: Professor, chief physician, Department director, Department of Cardiac Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

March 2003 - December 2010: Professor, Deputy director of department, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

February 2002 ~ February 2003: Postdoctoral research at the Cardiothoracic Surgery Department in the Medical School of the University of Colorado, US.

September 1996 ~ January 2002: Associate professor, cardiothoracic surgery department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

February 2000 ~ Jun 2002: Visiting scholar, cardiac surgery department of the German Berlin Heart Center.

August 1995 ~ August 1996: Visiting scholar on thoracic surgeons, the Affiliated Hospital of Tampere University, Finland.

July 1994 ~ July 1995: Attending physician, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

August 1991 ~ July 1994: PhD student in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

January 1987 ~ July 1991: Attending physician, Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Xiangya Hospital Affiliated to the Hunan Medical University.

August 1983 ~ December 1986: Master’s degree student of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Medical University.

August 1978 ~ July 1983: Attending physician, Surgery Department, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hengyang Medical College.

August 1975 ~ August 1978: Clinical Medicine Department of Hengyang Medical College.

February 2002 ~ February 2003: Postdoctoral fellow, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, USA.

February 2000 ~ Jun 2002: Visiting scholar, Cardiac Surgery at the German Berlin Heart Center.

August 1995 ~ August 1996:  Visiting scholar, thoracic surgeon’s department, Affiliated Hospital of Tampere University, Finland.

 

ZSDX023 Wang Changxi

Sex: male

Personal Profile: Professor of Organ Transplantation Department, member of Kidney Transplantation Group of Urology Branch of Chinese Medical Association, standing committee member of Guangdong Organ Transplantation Society, editorial board member of Chinese Journal of Organ Transplantation and Journal of Organ Transplantation.

From 1980 to 1985, He was a student in Suzhou Medical College, majoring in clinical medicine. After graduation, he had been worked in the urology department of Nanhua Hospital affiliated to Nanhua University. From 1988, he began to study and work in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. He obtained the master's degree of urology in 1991 and the Doctor's degree in organ transplant surgery in 1999. He was promoted to associate professor in the same year and chief physician in 2004. He worked as deputy Director of the Surgical Laboratory from 2004 to 2009 and has been director of the Organ Transplantation Department since October 2009.

In 2000, he went to The Novartis Transplantation Immunology Research Center at the University of Basel, Switzerland, and devoted to the clinical work and research of kidney transplantation after coming back home.

He has been engaged in kidney transplantation research since 1989 and has more than 2000 cases of clinical experience, including presiding over more than 700 cases of primary kidney transplantation, and dozens of children, elderly people and many special patients with severe lower urinary tract abnormalities were performed, treatment of severe infections such as postoperative rejection, cytomegalovirus pneumonia, fungal pneumonia and tuberculosis. Since taking charge of the kidney transplantation work in 2009, he has completed the most DCD kidney transplantation in China [61].

 

ZSDX024 Luo Honghe

Sex: male

Personal profile: Chief physician of the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine  [62]        

Deep research on heart and lung transplantation.      

                                              

ZSDX025 Hu Anbin

Personal profile: Deputy Chief Physician of Organ Transplantation Department  

Education and work experience:
September 1993 - July 1998: Undergraduate student and bachelor's degree in Binzhou Medical College, Shandong
August 1998 - August 1999, Resident physician in Huantai Branch of Qilu Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University
September 1999 - July 2004, Master and PhD co-student in Hepatobiliary Surgery, Wuhan Union Hospital of China.

July 2004 - July 2006, Post doctorate at the Department of Organ Transplantation, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
August 2006 - December 2008: Lecturer/Attending Physician at the Department of Organ Transplantation, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
December 2008 - present, Associate Professor/Associate Chief Physician, Department of Organ Transplantation, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
April 2011 to present: Supervisor of master students in the Organ Transplantation Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University.[63]

Mainly engaged in liver transplantation. In addition, has carried out the joint pancreas-kidney transplantation for 8 years for the treatment of diabetes and renal failure and other diseases.

                                

ZSDX026Yuan Xiaopeng

Sex: male,

Personal Profile: Associate Professor of Organ Transplantation Department

Graduated from the First Military Medical University in 1995. He began to work on organ transplantation in 1998.

Participated in more than 3000 cases of kidney transplantation and presided over more than 500 cases of primary kidney transplantation. Familiar with blood purification, tissue matching and kidney transplantation. Specializes in kidney transplantation in patients with high sensitization (PRA positive), diabetic nephropathy, and elderly patients [64].

       

ZSDX027 Zhan Wenhua

Sex: male.      

Personal Profile: Chief physician and professor of Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Surgery Department 

September 1979 - July 1982: Graduate student of Sun Yat-Sen Medical University.

July 1982 - present: Gastrointestinal Pancreatic Surgery Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

January - July 1991: Trainee of School of Medicine, Hong Kong University

December 1992 - March 1993: Visiting Fellow at Nagasaki University

December 1994: Accelerated promotion to professor and chief physician, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

March 1998 - March 2002: Director of General Surgery and Director of Gastrointestinal Pancreatic, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

Jun 1996 - Jun 2000: Executive President of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

Jun 2000 - December 2004: President of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University Jun 2004 - July 2008: Director of the Research Center for The Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastric Cancer, Sun Yat-sen University

September 2005 - December 2011: Chief Academic Leader of gastrointestinal and pancreatic surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.              
In cooperation with the Organ Transplantation Department, the first abdominal multi-organ transplantation and liver transplantation for gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and liver metastasis in Asia was completed. Specializes in the clinical and experimental transplantation of pancreas and islet [65].

                 

ZSDX028 Fei Jiguang

Sex: male       

Personal Profile: Associate chief physician of Organ Transplantation Center
                       

September 1982 - July 1987: Henan Medical University

October 1987 - July 1989: Yuanyang People's Hospital, Henan

September 1989 - July 1992: Master student of Henan Medical University

September 1992 - July 1997: People's Hospital of Henan Province

September 1997 - July 2000: Doctoral program student of Sun Yat-Sen Medical University

September 2000 - present: The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.             

Engaged in urology and kidney transplantation work for more than 10 years [66].

 

ZSDX029 Zhao Qiang

Sex: male

Personal Profile: Attending physician of Organ Transplantation Department                       

Graduated from an eight-year successive postgraduate and doctoral program of Clinical Medicine Program in Sun Yat-sen University. Trainee to Indiana University Hospital Transplant Center, the fourth largest transplant center in the United States, to learn liver transplantation and multi-organ transplantation technology in 2012 [67].

                                                                         

ZSDX030 Deng Suxiong

Sex: male       

Personal Profile: Associate chief physician of Organ Transplantation Department        

Major education and work experience: Graduated from Hunan Medical University in 1995 with a seven-year program of clinical medicine and received a master's degree; worked in the urology department of the Third Xiangya Hospital after graduation; studied for a doctor's degree in the Urology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in 2000; Has been worked in the Organ Transplantation Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University till now after graduation.   

Skilled and able to perform cadaver kidney cutting, donor kidney dressing and allogeneic kidney transplantation with low incidence of surgical complications [68].

 

ZSDX031 Deng Ronghai

Sex: male       

Personal Profile: Organ transplant physician          

September 2001/09 - Jun 2008: Master's degree student, seven-year program of clinical medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology
September 2010 - Jun 2013: Doctor's degree student, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

July 2008 - August 2010: First People's Hospital of Guangzhou, surgery physician

May 2011 - October 2012: Visiting scholar at the Microbial and Immune Teaching and Research, University of Toledo, US
                       

July 2013 - present, physician in Department of Organ Transplantation, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. May 2011 - October 2012, Visiting scholar at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo, US. During the period of PhD study, visited the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, for one and a half years, to carry out the research on immune tolerance of islet transplantation, as a visiting scholar.[69]

                                                                         

ZSDX032 Qiu Jiang

Sex: male.

Personal Profile: Associate chief physician of Organ Transplantation Department
           

Major education and work experience:

1991-1996: Scholar’s degree in Tongji Medical University

1996-2000: Surgical Department of Guangzhou Children's Hospital

2000-2003: Master's degree student, Sun Yat-Sen university

2005-2008: PhD degree student in Sun Yat-Sen university

2003 - present: Organ Transplantation Department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2008: Trainee in Toronto General Hospital

2009: Trainee in College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University      

Engaged in kidney transplantation for 10 years and completed more than 400 kidney transplantation surgeries (including living kidney transplantation for more than 100 cases). Skilled in perioperative management of kidney transplantation patients, treatment of critical, severe and complex complications, and use of immunosuppressive drugs. Extensive understanding in the fields of immunosuppression-associated infections (especially CMV infections), pediatric kidney transplantation and living kidney transplantation [70].

                 

ZSDX033 Guo Zhiyong

Sex: male       

Personal Profile: Resident physician of Organ Transplant Center

Education:

September 2007 - July 2010: Surgery Doctoral degree, Sun Yat-sen University

September 2000 - July 2007: Master's degree of seven-year program in clinical medicine, Sun Yat-sen University

Work Experience:

January 2015 - present: Associate professor, Associate chief physician, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

January 2014 - present: Master student supervisor, Sun Yat-sen University

January 2013 - December 2014: Attending physician in Organ Transplant Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

July 2010 - December 2012: Resident physician, Scientific Research Secretary, Organ Transplant Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

Professional affiliations:

January 2009 - present: Member of the American Society of Organ Transplantation
January 2014 - present: Member of World Organ Transplant Association

December 2013 - present: Member of Journal Editorial Board for World Journal of Gastroenterology and World Journal of Hepatology. Journal editorial assistant for Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition; Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition

September 2008 - December 2009: Ph.D. degree of immunology, National Public Joint Culture Program in University of Toledo, Ohio, USA

August 2006 - October 2006: Exchanged student in University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), organ transplantation study    

Has been engaged in the clinical work and basic research of hepatobiliary surgery, liver transplantation, pancreas transplantation, small intestine transplantation and multi-organ transplantation for a long time, with more than 300 cases of clinical liver transplantation experience, and skilled in the donor and recipient operation and perioperative management of liver transplantation and other abdominal organ transplantation. Speciated in liver transplantation of liver cancer, immune function assessment of transplant recipients and individualized immunosuppressive therapy, relevant clinical studies have been adopted by the authoritative American Clinical Guidelines for Liver Transplantation. Rich clinical experience in liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease caused by rare etiologies [71].

 

ZSDX034 Zhong Fotian

Sex: male.      

Personal Profile: Professor of thoracic surgery

Main research direction: cardiopulmonary transplantation (myocardial protection, lung function protection) [72].

                 

ZSDX035 Chen Guangxian

Sex: male.      

Personal Profile: Associate professor and associate chief physician of the Department of Cardiology (second Department of Cardiology)  

Education and working experience:

September 1992 - June 1997: Clinical Medicine Department, Sun Yat-Sen Medical University

July 1997 - June 2002: Resident doctor of cardiothoracic surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

September 2001 - June 2004: Master degree student of Cardiac surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

July 2002 - December 2009: Attending physician of cardiothoracic surgery and cardiac surgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

September 2005 - December 2008: PhD candidate in cardiac surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

December 2009 to present: Associate professor and associate chief physician of cardiac Surgery department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

Since 1997, has been specialized in cardiac surgery and received standardized training for master's and doctor's degrees. Mainly engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of heart and lung transplantation and perioperative management [73].

In 2009, went to the Organ Transplantation Center of Northwestern University for post-doctoral research and clinical exchange.                                                                    

Has been engaged in clinical work of kidney transplantation for more than 10 years and has more than 800 cases of clinical experience of kidney transplantation [74].

 

ZSDX036 Chen Guodong

Sex: male.      

Personal Profile: Associate professor, Associate chief physician, Department of Transplantation. Member of American Transplantation Society (AST) and Organ Transplantation Branch of Guangdong Medical Association.                          

2002: Bachelor of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University

2005: Master’s degree of Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University

2013 Doctor of Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University

2009: Postdoc of Organ Transplant Center, Northwestern University, USA

Has been engaged in clinical work of kidney transplantation for more than 10 years. An associate professor associates chief physician and master's degree student supervisor of organ transplantation department.    

2009, went to the Organ Transplantation Center of Northwestern University for post-doctoral research and clinical exchange.
                       

Has been engaged in clinical work of kidney transplantation for more than 10 years and has more than 800 cases of clinical experience of kidney transplantation[75].

 

ZSDX037 Chen Zhenguang

Sex: male.      

Personal Profile: Deputy chief physician of Department of Cardiovascular Medicine                   

In-depth research in lung transplantation and achieved good clinical efficacy [76].

                 

ZSDX038 Chen Lizhong

Sex: male       

Personal Profile: Chief physician of organ Transplantation Department, Deputy Director of organ Transplantation Center. Member of the Standing Committee of Guangdong Organ Transplantation Society, Chinese Medical Association. Graduated from The Department of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University in 1983. Professor, chief physician, deputy director of organ Transplantation Center in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

Education and working experience:

September 1978 - June 1983: Sun Yat-Sen Medical College

July 1983 - December 1985: Military Unit 87067, Guangzhou Airforce

December 1985 - August 1987: Guangzhou Airforce hospital

September 1987 - Jun 1992: PhD candidate in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

July 1992 - present: The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

In 2001 and 2012: Went to the University of Maryland Hospital and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center for further study of kidney transplantation and exchange.              

Engaged in clinical and research work of kidney transplantation for 20 years, presided over the kidney transplants work in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University for 12 years, among which, relatives living donor renal transplantation, pediatric renal transplantation, high-risk recipients of renal transplantation, BK virus infection after renal transplantation, CMV pneumonia, the diagnosis and treatment of refractory rejection aspects, positioned as the national leading level. Complete various types of kidney transplants nearly thousand examples. National well-known experts in the field of renal transplantation [77].

                 

ZSDX039 Chen Maogen

Sex: male       

Personal Profile: Resident physician of Organ Transplantation Department          
 

Education experience:

2008/09 - 2013/06: PhD candidate of transplant surgeon, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2005/09 - 2008/07: Master's degree student of general surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College

2000/09-2005/07: Undergraduate student of clinical medicine, Gannan Medical University

Work experience

2013/07 - present: Resident physician in organ transplantation department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2009/03 - 2010/03: PhD student intern in organ transplant surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2006/08 - 2008/08: Master graduate student intern in general surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College

2004/03 - 2005/04: Undergraduate interns, the First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University

2010/11 - 2013/0: Postdoctoral research, Department of Immunology, University of Southern California, United States [78]          

 

ZSDX040 Yinghua CHAN

Sex: male       

Personal Profile: Associate chief physician of Organ Transplantation Department

1997/09 - 2002/06: Undergraduate of clinical, Guangzhou Medical University

2002/09 - 2004/06: Master graduate student of surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2004/09 - 2007/06: PhD student of surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2007/07 - 2008/12: Resident physician of liver transplantation center, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2008/12 - 2012/09: Attending physician of liver transplantation center, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2012/10 - 2014/12: Attending physician of organ transplantation department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2014 /12 - present: Associate chief physician of organ transplantation department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

                 
Graduated from Sun Yat-sen University in 2007 with a doctor's degree in surgery. Has been engaged in liver surgery, liver transplantation, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer transplantation. Skilled at liver transplantation and comprehensive treatment for liver cancer, hepatitis B liver cirrhosis and other end-stage liver diseases and carries out in-depth and systematic research. Rich clinical experience in the treatment of liver transplantation, perioperative period and postoperative medium- and long-term management of liver transplantation, comprehensive treatment of liver cancer, and treatment of critical and severe diseases such as hepatitis B cirrhosis, portal hypertension and liver failure [79]. Researches focus on the clinical work and basic hepatobiliary surgery, liver transplantation, and abdominal organ cluster transplantation, with more than 400 cases of clinical liver transplantation experience [80].

 

ZSDX041 Ju Weiqiang

Sex: male.      

Personal Profile: Associate chief physician of Organ Transplantation Department

Graduated from The Department of Clinical Medicine of Shandong Medical University in 2000 and got the master's degree in medicine in 2003. After graduation, he stayed to work in the center. Received his MD in 2009.  

Can independently complete the donor liver cutting and dressing work and liver transplantation surgery, as the first assistant can cooperate with the leading surgeon to complete a variety of complex liver transplantation and abdominal organ combined transplantation surgery. Has participated in more than 800 cases of clinical liver transplantation, among which more than 50 cases have been completed as the principal surgeon. Clinical experience in perioperative management of liver transplantation and color Doppler ultrasound monitoring of blood flow of liver transplantation. Experienced in liver transplantation for children. Assistance in the Asia's first successful abdominal organ cluster transplantation (now finish 14 cases) and the highest age  (76 years old ) liver transplantation in Asia, assisted successfully the first domestic mother parent small bowel transplantation, conducted the first adult expanding right living donor liver transplantation and the first simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation in south China. In 2007, went to Mary Hospital of The University of Hong Kong for further study on living donor liver transplantation and perioperative management [81].

 

ZSDX042 Han Fanghai

Sex: male

Date of birth: August 1963

Place of birth: Jimo city, Shandong Province.

Personal Profile: Chief physician, professor, deputy director of Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Surgery

Started to work in August 1986, doctor's degree; a member of the Chinese Communist Party; chief physician of Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Surgery; master's graduate student tutor.                          

Undertook a large number of transplant research projects:

1. Pancreatic kidney transplantation combined with transplantation for diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. The CMB fund, project number: 96-636

2. The pancreas transplantation molecular biology diagnosis of acute rejection. Science and Technology Department of Sichuan province, project number: 03JY029-081-1

3. The study of the pancreas transplantation immune exemption caused by the second signal blocking. Science and Technology Department of Sichuan province, project number: 03JY029-087-2

4. The pancreas transplantation immune exemption caused by CTLA-4Ig genes introduction. Doctoral Foundation of Ministry of Education, Project No.: 2003061-0071 [82]

 

ZSDX043 HAN Ming

Sex: male.

Personal Profile: Attending physician of Organ Transplantation Department                      

Graduated from Norman Bethune University of Medical Science with a bachelor's degree in 2005 and entered Sun Yat-Sen University as an exam-free postgraduate. Under the guidance of professor He Xiaoshun, a famous organ transplant expert in China, he graduated from his successive postgraduate and doctoral programs in 2010.      

Engaged in general surgery and organ transplantation, and experienced in indications, contraindications and perioperative management of liver, kidney, pancreas and multiple organ transplantation [83].          

Specialty: Basic and clinical research of organ transplantation and liver regeneration.

                 

ZSDX044 Ma Yi

Sex: male.

Personal Profile: Chief physician of Organ Transplantation Department   

           
Graduated from the Department of Clinical Medicine in 1991 and obtained the master’s and doctor's degree of surgery in Sun Yat-Sen University in 2003. Has been engaged in clinical work in general surgery and liver transplantation surgery for 20 years.

Specializes in liver surgery, liver transplantation and pancreas transplantation surgery [84].
 

ZSDX045 Luo Rongjiang

Sex: male.

Profile: Associate professor of ophthalmology        

        
Visited the National Eye Center of Singapore and the Mayo Medical Center of the United States.

Skilled in the diagnosis, treatment and operation of keratopathy (keratoplasty) [85].

                 

ZSDX046 Huang Gang

Sex: male

Personal Profile: Associate chief physician of Organ Transplantation Department, member of American Transplantation Society (AST), member of Organ Transplantation Branch of Guangdong Medical Association           

 

1998.9 ~ 2003.6: Bachelor of Clinical Medicine, China Medical University

2003.9 ~ 2008.6: Doctoral candidate of surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2008.7 ~ 2011.12: Resident physician in Organ Transplantation Department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2011.12 ~ 2015.12: Attending physician in Organ Transplantation Department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

2015.12 ~ present: Associate chief physician in Organ Transplantation Department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University

Jun. 2014 ~ Jul. 2015: Visiting scholar of Governmental Program at Transplantation Pathology Department of UPMC, Montefiore Hospital and Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute of The University of Pittsburgh medical Center     

Received his doctor's degree in surgery from Sun Yat-sen University in 2008. Has been engaged in clinical work and basic research related to kidney transplantation. With clinical experience of more than 800 cases of kidney transplantation, skilled in perioperative management of kidney transplantation in patients with uremia caused by various causes, diagnosis and treatment of complications such as acute and chronic rejection, infection and recurrence of renal disease after kidney transplantation [86].

 

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