Investigative Report on the Role of Chinese Military & Armed Police Hospitals in Forced Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
Table of Contents
I Categorization of PLA Hospitals
II Military Enacts Jiang Zemin’s Genocide Policy on Falun Gong Practitioners
III Evidence of PLA Hospital Involvement in Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
1. PLA 307 Hospital
2. Two Hospitals Affiliated with Guangzhou Military Command
IV Veteran Military Doctor Attests to Military Command Involvement in Live Organ Harvesting V Abnormally High Number of Organ Transplant Cases and Abundant Supply of Donor Organs at PLA Hospitals
1. Central Military Commission (CMC) Affiliated Hospitals
2. Military Command Affiliated Hospitals
3. Military University-Affiliated Hospitals
4. Armed Police Forces-Affiliated Hospitals
5. Sequenced PLA Hospitals
6. Other PLA Medical Centers, Lacking Organ Transplant Qualifications, also Performed Large Number of Organ Transplant
VI Organ Transplantation is Key to PLA Hospitals’ Modernization Strategy
1. Organ Transplant Center is Primary Profit Center for Many PLA Hospitals
2. Armed Police Forces-Affiliated Hospitals are Major Suppliers of Donor Organs
3. Lucrative Profits From Organ Harvesting Used to Upgrade Hospital Facilities
Based on the information gathered by the World Organization to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong (WOIPFG), numerous hospitals in Chinese military (People’s Liberation Army, a.k.a. PLA) and Armed Police system have been involved in live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners. Since China’s army is run in a totalitarian manner, its unique political standing and autonomous status have made the military’s persecution of Falun Gong practitioners especially brutal and secretive.
This report lifts the veil and presents evidence of the existence of former Party head Jiang Zemin’s policy of “ruining practitioners’ reputations, cutting off practitioners’ income sources, and destroying practitioners’ physical bodies.” Our investigation clearly shows that Jiang’s regime has committed genocide against Falun Gong practitioners by systematically abusing the state apparatus, including the PLA and armed police.
Zhou Yongkang, head of the Political and Legislative Affairs Committee (PLAC), is responsible for promoting and implementing the genocide policy against Falun Gong practitioners. Under his manipulation, China’s police, prosecutors, courts, judiciary, detention centers, labor camps, prisons and hospitals are implicated in a centrally orchestrated plot to use Falun Gong practitioners as live organ suppliers for military and armed police hospitals to rip profits.
I. Categorization of PLA Hospitals
The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is under the direct command of Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) Central Military Commission (CMC). It is one of the few armies in the world that does not belong to the country it resides in. Xinhua, the CCP mouthpiece media, introduces the CMC with the following words: “The CMC is the abbreviation of Chinese Communist Party Central Military Commission and the People’s Republic of China Central Military Commission. The CMC is CCP’s highest military command and control organization. The CMC leads the nation’s armed forces.” 1 Externally however, CMC is often referred to as the Central Military Commission of the People’s Republic of China.
The Ministry of National Defense, which operates under the State Council, does not exercise any authority over the PLA and is far less powerful than the CMC. In other words, the PLA serves the CCP, not the Chinese nation.
The PLA system is divided into four general departments, namely PLA General Staff Department, PLA General Political Department, PLA General Logistics Department, and PLA General Armaments Department. There are seven military regions (also known as military commands), including the Shenyang Military Command, Beijing Military Command, Lanzhou Military Command, Jinan Military Command, Nanjing Military Command, Guangzhou Military Command and Chengdu Military Command. Moreover, the PLA consists of five service branches: the Ground Force, the Navy, the Air Force, the Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), and the Armed Police, which is domestically focused. 2
Each of the general departments, military regions and service branches has its affiliated hospitals. Generally speaking, the PLA hospitals can be categorized in the following 4 categories.
1. CMC-Affiliated Hospitals
The 301 Military Hospital or “PLA General Hospital” is the largest general hospital under the auspices of the PLA. Its mission includes assuring the health of the PLA and the country's leaders. In 2004, the 304 Hospital and 309 Hospital of the PLA were renamed respectively as the 304 and 309 Clinical Branches, and are publicly referred to as the First and the Second Affiliated Hospitals, with the PLA General Hospital.3
2. Military Command or Service Branch-Affiliated Hospitals
Some examples are Air Force General Hospital, Navy General Hospital, Second Artillery Corps General Hospital, and General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command.
3. Military Medical University-Affiliated Hospitals
For instance, The Third Military Medical University in Chongqing City has Xinan Hospital, Xinqiao Hospital and Daping Hospital as its affiliated hospitals.
4. PLA Numbered Hospitals
The rest of the hospitals in the PLA system that do not belong to the above mentioned categories are simply numbered in sequence. For example, the PLA 85 Hospital is located in Shanghai and the PLA 463 Hospital belongs to the PLA Air Forces and is located in Shenyang.
II. Military Enacts Jiang Zemin’s Genocide Policy on Falun Gong Practitioners
The military has been playing an important role in the CCP’s ongoing persecution of Falun Gong practitioners since 1999. On April 25, 1999, more than ten thousand Falun Gong practitioners staged a peaceful appeal in front of the State Council’s Appeals Office. This event is historically known as the “4.25 Appeal.” On the same day, then-CMC chairman Jiang Zemin commanded CMC vice-chairman, Zhang Wannian, to immediately prepare the nation’s military and armed police forces, especially those stationed in Beijing, to wage a campaign against Falun Gong. Under the directives of Zhang Wannian, the PLA General Staff Department and General Political Department immediately issued an urgent order banning active service people, retired military personnel and their families from practicing Falun Gong. Zhang Wannian reiterated the order of “eradicating Falun Gong within the PLA system” to Yu Yongbo (Chief of Staff of PLA General Political Department) numerous times.” 4
The CCP officially launched the persecution of Falun Gong on July 20, 1999. A few days later, PLA General Political Department issued documents requiring the entire military system to engage in an in-depth study of Marxism and atheism, emphasizing that “the battle against Falun Gong is to safeguard the fundamental belief in Communism and the rule of the CCP.” 5
The Deng Xiaoping Theory Research Center at PLA National Defense University, a research arm of the PLA, authored an anti-Falun Gong article and won an award from the Propaganda Department. 6 The article was published in the People’s Daily (CCP’s mouthpiece newspaper) in the name of a special commentator. 7
PLA General Political Department compiled a variety of written materials and made numerous audio and video tapes to slander Falun Gong. 8 They also held numerous anti-Falun Gong meetings 9 and demanded that everyone break away from Falun Gong and pledge allegiance to the CCP. 10 Those who held firm to their belief in Falun Gong were fired from the army or forced to take an early retirement. 11 Any prospective military recruit who either practiced Falun Gong or had family members who practiced was not allowed to enlist in the army 12 or enroll in military universities. This policy became effective in 2001 13 and is still enforced as of 2011. 14 Some high-ranking military officials who refused to give up their belief were sentenced by military courts. 15
III. Evidence of PLA Hospitals’ Involvement in the Live Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners
WOIPFG has obtained solid evidence of live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners by the transplant divisions of military and armed police hospitals. Below are some examples.
1. PLA 307 Hospital
During the first half of 2007, a WOIPFG investigator had contacted a “broker representative” for PLA 307 Hospital, in the name of helping a family member who needed a kidney transplant. The communication lasted several weeks. Several dozen minutes of telephone conversation were recorded. The broker not only confirmed the existence of live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners, but also revealed some details of its inner-workings.
Typically, Falun Gong practitioners who had appealed to the government, were arrested, and would not reveal their names (to protect the others from being implicated), are the victims of organ harvesting. The practitioners were given false identities as organ donors. This reached its peak around 2003, with hospitals often publicly advertising unusually short wait times for organ transplants. After 2003, the process turned into a secret operation, but still continues. The investigation of PLA 307 Hospital was documented in detail in a WOIPFG report published on July 25, 2007. 16
The following is a partial transcript of discussions with the organ broker in 2007:
Investigator: Hi, how are you? Last time I talked to you about contacting the kidney supply sources. How is it going?
Broker: You meant that, contacting the prison, or?
Investigator: Yes, the Falun Gong practitioners, I meant.
Broker: To tell you the truth, I cannot go looking for it if I get nothing in return.
Investigator: I told you before, as long as you can find this type [from a Falun Gong practitioner], the rest is no problem.
Broker: We will tell you the real source. We have done two such cases [from Falun Gong practitioners].
Investigator: You mean two operations involving Falun Gong practitioners as sources?
Broker: That’s right, we did two cases. The prison told us they did that with Falun Gong. I also told that lady that we indeed performed such operations. Now, however, it is getting more difficult than before.
Investigator: How could you be so sure [the source of organs] was a Falun Gong practitioner?
Broker: Well, when the time comes, our boss will have people show you the information [confirming
this]. You know, he will show you information and data, you can be sure.
Investigator: Oh, that’s good.
Broker: They have all the information and data, even including individual resumes.
Investigator: Oh, so there were more cases around 2003?
Broker: Of course. There were tons of Falun Gong [practitioners] on file around 2003.
Investigator: It was much easier for you to get the organs for the operation at that time, right?
Broker: Yes, around 2003. I tell you the facts: I handled two cases in 2003 and I started in 2003.
Broker: Last time I made some inquiries by calling around … Later I contacted [the labor camp or prison officials] by phone. I asked my boss to call [the official], and [that official] said they will obtain the organs from “the inside [the labor camps or prisons].”
Broker: Now [the Falun Gong practitioners] were all transferred to remote prisons. They [the officials] need to get the organs from there; that takes money. Lots of money must be paid to people over there, you know. But I tell you, on the other hand, right now it is very difficult. They should not ask too much. You know that several years ago, they secretly detained many Falun Gong practitioners who went to appeal but did not provide their names. There were no records, no registrations. It is quite normal, you know … If the Falun Gong practitioner did not give out his name, he would be given a number, understand?
Broker: Such people who did not give out names all had a number. I know this better than you. All were numbered and recorded.
Investigator: Oh, so it is like this: If they only had the numbers, they should also have the real names in the record. These should be in there, right?
Broker: If they could not find out the real names, they are just numbers.
Investigator: Ok. Let's schedule an appointment. I will bring along 30,000 yuan.
Broker: You must come to my place first, and I will definitely not go to your place. If you come, I will arrange my boss to check you out.
Investigator: Can you tell me how can I find you?
Broker: Do you know where the PLA 307 Hospital is?
Investigator: I can find it. Where specifically within the PLA 307 Hospital should I meet you?
Broker: You don't need to go to the inpatient department. Just show up at the entrance of the hospital.
Broker: Do you know where the PLA 307 Hospital is located?
Investigator: Yeah. Since we never met before, we should have some way to identify each other.
Broker: Don't worry about it. When you arrive at the hospital entrance, call me. I will be upstairs, so I can spot you. I can recognize you when you show up.
2. Two Hospitals Affiliated With the Guangzhou Military Command
1) Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command (a.k.a. Liuhuaqiao Hospital)
Registered with World Health Organization in 1976 as Guangzhou Liuhuaqiao Hospital, this hospital was renamed as Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command in 1987. Its Urology Center was formed in 1998 and the Urological Research Institute was launched in 2005. The Organ Transplant Center was a department under the Urological Research Institute and it claimed to have carried out kidney transplants as early as in 1981. It claims to have finished about 1,000 surgeries in total and 150 surgeries per year. Many of its physicians traveled overseas for scientific meetings in the U.S., Italy, and Japan, etc. They gave presentations or displayed their research results at the American Urological Association (AUA), European Association of Urology (EAU), and so on. 17
Below is the transcript of a phone conversation between a WOIPFG investigator and Zhu Yunsong, director of the Urology Section in Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command.
Time of Conversation: 21:24, April 12, 2006
Investigator: Is this Director Zhu of Guangzhou General Hospital?
Zhu: Yes, I am.
Investigator: I am working in No. 304 Hospital and I have two relatives here. Right now we do not have enough kidney supplies. We used to do lots of such surgeries in 2001, 2002, 2003 ...
Zhu: Yes, I know.
Investigator: We did find a young kidney donor. Another thing is that, my relatives think kidneys from Falun Gong detainees are better. Do you have this kind?
Zhu: We do not have many Falun Gong kidney sources either.
Investigator: How many do you have now?
Zhu: It is easy to find Type B kidney donors. If you want, you can come; we will do it pretty soon, definitely before May 1.
Investigator: Do you have one batch prior to May 1?
Zhu: We will have several batches.
Investigator: How about after May 1?
Zhu: If you wait until after May 1, it will be more likely in late May.
Investigator: If you could obtain Falun Gong kidney sources in this period of time, could you let me know?
Zhu: No problem, you come over and we can talk then ...
2) Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command is a large-scale comprehensive military hospital in Southern China. It is affiliated with the Southern Medical University (formerly known as No. 1 Military Medical University). 18 Nearly 100 kidney transplants are conducted there every year. 19
Below is the transcript of an investigation conducted by a WOIPFG investigator at 18:41 on April 6, 2006.
Investigator: Is this Director Tang of Kidney Transplantation at Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command?
Answer: Yes, I am.
Investigator: Do you have some kidney supplies from detainees, such as from Falun Gong?
Answer: This has nothing to do with Falun Gong, who cares about Falun Gong.
Investigator: Are you saying you do not use them?
Answer: If it is available from Falun Gong, then we use it, don't we?
IV. Veteran Military Doctor Attests to Military Command Involvement in Live Organ Harvesting
A veteran military physician provided information on the official workflow of live organ harvesting enacted by the military. This shocking information reveals how deeply provincial level military hospitals were involved in the live organ harvesting. Due to the communist regime’s information blockage, we have not been able to verify all of the physician’s claims. However, they are supported by the evidence listed above. We are in the process of investigating the claims further.
“Falun Gong practitioners and other detainees were registered using their genuine identities during their detention.” “Upon being selected for organ transplant, these people were quickly removed from the prisons, labor camps, detention centers, etc. They were no longer identified by names, but only by numbers. This number corresponded to a fake identity of a voluntary organ donor.” “That is to say, there was a complete set of documents for the fake organ donor, including even a signature on a form certifying voluntary organ donation. Of course the signature was signed by someone else.” “[At the time of organ harvesting,] the selected individual taken for a physical exam, which was followed by partial anesthesia and live organ harvesting.” 20
V. Abnormally High Numbers of Organ Transplant Cases and Abundant Supply of Donor Organs at PLA Hospitals
Since 2000, military hospitals in mainland China have been carrying out an exceedingly large number of transplant operations, with abundant and timely sources of donors. The military hospital system is independently operated. It is not under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health. Armed Police hospitals have direct access to prisons and inmates. The actual numbers of transplant operations are likely much larger than the verified numbers. The following is a partial list of these hospitals:
- 1. CMC Affiliated Hospitals
（1）PLA General Hospital (PLA 301 Hospital)
The Department of Urology of the PLA General Hospital says that it is responsible for providing medical care to the CCP leaders and high ranking officials of from the government and military. The hospital is equipped with 86 beds, 27 doctors, 34 nurses and technicians. They have a transplant center, hemodialysis room for kidney transplants, genotyping and a HLA (human leukocyte antigen) matching room. Nearly two thirds of the doctors at the Department of Urology perform kidney transplant procedures. They have performed more than 2,000 kidney transplants since 2005. 21
（2）PLA General Staff Department General Hospital (PLA 309 Hospital) 22—“Army Organ Transplant Center” 23
The Army Organ Transplant Center was originally the transplant center of the PLA 309 Hospital Clinical Department. It was founded within the Department of Urology. There were two departments and one laboratory: the transplant department, the urology department, and the transplant research laboratory. During 2002 when the Army Organ Transplant Center was established, it had already completed more than 1,000 transplant operations. 24 The Center had once conducted 12 kidney transplant procedures in one night. 25 In recent years, the Center realized approximately 2,300 kidney transplants, and more than 370 liver transplants. 26
From 2002, when the Transplant Center was established, until 2006, they conducted 110 liver transplants. In May 2004, they performed their second heart transplant. They also conducted two combined liver-kidney transplants, as well as two combined pancreas-kidney transplants.28
- 2. Military Command Affiliated Hospitals
The general hospitals of military regions and service branches also performed large numbers of organ transplants.
（1）General Hospital of Beijing Military Command
The General Hospital of Beijing Military Command started clinical liver transplant operations in 1999. They announced that they had established a rapid and unrestricted channel of liver donors. Not only could they obtain livers from Beijing and nearby areas, they could also obtain high quality liver supplies from other provinces and cities. 27
（2）Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command
The Fuzhou General Hospital Hepatobiliary Surgery Department was established in 2002. It is now the Hepatobiliary Surgery Clinical Research Laboratory and Army Organ Transplant Research Center for the Nanjing Military Region. It is a key research and development laboratory for both Nanjing Military Region and the army in general. 28
They claim that under the leadership of Director Jiang Yi, the Center completed 150 liver transplant operations from 1999 to April 2008. 29 They also claim that from 1999 to February 2012, they completed nearly 400 liver transplant operations. That is to say, in the short span of 3 years from April 2008 to February 2012, they completed 250 liver transplant operations. At one point, they successfully performed five liver transplant operations within 24 hours. (See reference 31)
In their independent investigative report “Bloody Harvest —The killing of Falun Gong for their organs,” 30 David Matas (renowned Canadian human rights lawyer) and David Kilgour (former Canadian Secretary of State Asia-Pacific and member of the Parliament) mentioned that they met a patient who had gone through eight kidney matching tests within several months in mainland China. After the match was found, the transplant operation was conducted successfully. The patient spent eight days recovering at the PLA 85 Hospital. His surgeon was Dr. Tan Jianming from the Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command Kidney Transplant Center. Dr. Tan from time to time appeared in full military uniform at civilian hospitals. He often carried several sheets of paper containing names of potential donors, complete with tissue and blood type information. He would select donors from this list.
（3）Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command
Based on a report by People’s Daily Overseas Edition, the Army Kidney Disease Research Laboratory at Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command had progressed from a dozen transplant operations a year to more than 1,000 transplant operations in 2004. 31 Dr. Li Leishi stated that their long term kidney transplant results had surpassed that of the United States. 32
（4）General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command (Shenyang Military General Hospital)
The General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command Urology Department is the key clinical department and kidney transplant center of the Shenyang Military Command. It is equipped with 36 beds. In recent years, the number of kidney transplant operations exceeded 100 per year. They had completed more than 1,500 kidney transplants by 2005. 33
（5）Jinan Military Region General Hospital (Jinan Military Region Urology Department Clinic Center)
The Urology Department of Jinan Military Region General Hospital was authorized to be the Army Kidney Transplant and Dialysis Therapy Center in 2005. They are equipped with 80 beds. The number of transplant operations exceeded 120 per year with the maximum of 147 operations in a year. 34 Up to 2009, they have performed 1,900 kidney transplants and 400 live kidney transplants within family members. 35
（6）Other military region general hospitals
Lanzhou Military Region General Hospital, 36 Chengdu Military Region General Hospital, 37 Chengdu Military Region Kunming General Hospital (PLA 43 Hospital), and Lanzhou Military Region Urumqi General Hospital all performed large numbers of transplants. 38 Even the Tibet Military Region General Hospital, at an altitude of 3,700 meters, also performed kidney and liver transplant operations. 39
Additionally, the general hospitals of the Navy, 40 the Air Force, 41 the PLA Second Artillery, 42 and other military branches, all actively engaged in transplant operations.. Categorization of PLA Hospitals
3. Military Medical University Affiliated Hospitals
（1）The First Military Medical University
- 1) Nanfang Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of the First Military Medical University)
Nanfang Hospital performed the first kidney transplant in 1978. By August 2003, they have performed over 3,000 kidney transplant operations, about 250 per year. 42
- 2) Zhujiang Hospital Transplant Center (The Secondary Affiliated Hospital of the First Military Medical University 43 )
The Transplant Center engaged in kidney transplants, liver transplants, combined liver and kidney transplants, and combined pancreas and renal transplants. From June 1990 to April 2006, the Center had completed more than 2,100 kidney transplants. 44 By February 2011, they had completed more than 3,100 kidney transplants, about 150 to 200 operations per year. 45
（2）The Second Military Medical University
- 1) Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Transplant Center
The Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Transplant Center founded the Army Transplant Research Laboratory on May 16, 2004. Currently there are the kidney transplant department and the liver transplant department. Under the Research Lab, there are six labs, including an organ preserving lab and a tissue matching lab. 46 They have completed 3,000 transplants, with an average of 200 operations per year. 47 The liver transplant department was one of the top ten national kidney transplant centers. Each year they complete around 130 liver transplants. The average wait time for liver transplant patients is one week. They have also completed three combined liver and kidney transplant operations, two combined pancreas and renal transplant operations and one heart transplant. 48
Webpage Capture 1: Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, average wait time for liver transplant patients is one week.
Webpage Capture 2: Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Transplant Research Center Transplant Case Chart 49
The following incident is from the investigative report “Bloody Harvest.” Mr. Zhang from Taiwan died after a liver transplant operation in China in 2005. Mr. Zhang’s widow said that a classmate who worked at a Taiwanese company in Shanghai told Mr. Zhang to go to Fudan Hospital for liver transplant. Because there was no liver supply in Fudan Hospital, Mr. Zhang went to Changzheng Hospital in Shanghai. Donors were immediately available in Changzheng Hospital. In fact, all 9 floors in the hospital were filled with liver transplant patients. She was convinced that the doctors did more than 160 transplants that year. While discussing with other family members, she discovered an issue. Changzheng Hospital would change the whole liver even if there was only a minor problem, such as hepatomegaly (liver swell). They always replace the whole liver. Changzheng Hospital demanded 300,000 yuan paid in full before the operation could start.
- 2) Changhai Hospital and Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital are both affiliated with the Second Military Medical University. They have also been performing kidney and liver transplant operations.
（3）The Third Military Medical University
- 1) The Southwest Hepatic Clinical Hospital (First Affiliated Hospital of the Third Military Medical University)
The Southwest Hepatic Clinical Hospital was established based on the former Hepatic Clinical Research Laboratory, in May 2000. In September 2000, PLA General Logistics Department authorized it as the Army Hepatic Clinical Research Laboratory. 50 From 1999 to May 2004, the hospital performed more than 260 liver transplants. It holds the record of five simultaneous liver transplant operations. Director of the Southwest Hospital’s Hepatic Clinical Research Laboratory Dong Jiahong claimed that such accomplishment was far from reaching the limit of the facility and faculty. Dong said that the laboratory had sufficient manpower and resources to guarantee 200 transplants per year and six liver transplants per day. 51 By 2009 they had completed more than 900 transplants. 52 Even after the publication of “Bloody Harvest,” when the whole world was paying attention, Southwest Hepatic Clinical Hospital performed more than 640 transplants from 2004 to 2009, an increase of 240 percent over the previous five years.
- 2) Xinqiao Hospital (The Second Affiliated Hospital of The Third Military Medical University)
Xinqiao Hospital Kidney Transplant Department has performed more than 2,100 transplants. It is the third hospital to have surpassed 2,000 operations. It is also the largest organ transplant center in Southwest China. It claims to have done much research on tissue matching, immunodetection and development of new drugs. 53
- 3) Chongqing Daping Hospital (The Third Affiliated Hospital of the Third Military Medical University)
They have performed heart, liver and kidney transplant operations, as well as children’s heart transplants. 54
（4）The Fourth Military Medical University
Xijing Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University)
Located in Xian Shaanxi Province, Xijing Hospital is affiliated with the Fourth Military Medical University. It claims to be the first hospital in northwest China to perform heart transplant surgery, in January 2000, and it accomplished three heart transplant operations in one day. In January 2005, they performed a simultaneous transplant of liver, pancreas, and kidney, the sixth such procedure in the world. 55 From January 2000 to April 2006, they performed a total of 33 orthotropic heart transplants, with 29 male patients and 4 female patients. 56 According to the Xian Evening News on Feb. 3, 2008, Xijing Hospital successfully performed the first simultaneous transplant of heart, kidney and liver. Director of Hospital Guo Minghua stated that in preparation for this operation, the hospital was able to secure an appropriate donor within one week. 57
- 4. Armed Police Forces-Affiliated Hospitals
Since 2000, organ transplants in general hospitals of armed police forces have been widespread and have grown to a considerable number.
(1) Organ Transplant Research Institute of the Armed Police Forces General Hospital (formerly known as the Liver Transplant Center of Armed Police Forces General Hospital)
The Organ Transplant Research Institute of the General Hospital of Armed Police Forces in Beijing was established in May 2003. 58 It was jointly established by the General Hospital of Armed Police Forces and the Oriental Organ Transplant Center of Tianjin First Center Hospital. Shen Zhongyang, the director of Oriental Organ Transplant Center was also the head of Liver Transplant Research Institute of General Hospital of Armed Police Forces. 59 Liver transplant surgeries are carried out by the transplant team of the Oriental Organ Transplant Center. 60 With the aid of first-class equipment and technical advantages from Oriental Organ Transplant Center, Organ Transplant Research Institute of the General Hospital of Armed Police Forces was able to complete 506 cases of allogeneic orthotropic liver transplant surgeries in just over two years, the highest annual figure in the army and the country. 61 The Oriental Organ Transplant Center obtained an adequate supply of livers, making its number of liver transplant operations ranked first in the world within just a few years’ time. 62
Table 3. Liver Transplant Cases in Tianjin First Center Hospital as of 2004
Note: * This number for 2003 does not include the ones done by the General Hospital of Armed Police Forces. The figure is the number of surgeries.
Liver Transplant Cases inside Tianjin First Center Hospital as of 2004
Liver Transplant Cases outside Tianjin First Center Hospital as of 2004
Total Liver Transplant Cases for Tianjin First Center Hospital as of 2004
The table and charts show that the number of liver transplant operations at Tianjin First Center Hospital has grown substantially since 2002. They especially noted that the figure in 2003 does not include the cases done by the General Hospital of Armed Police Forces. This shows that the General Hospital of Armed Police Forces and the Oriental Organ Transplant Center have mutually beneficial cooperative relationships.
(2) Affiliated Hospital of Armed Police Logistics Institute
It is formerly known as the Affiliated Hospital of the Armed Police Medical School. It was renamed in September 2011. 64
The Nephrology department of the Affiliated Hospital of the Armed Police Medical School consists of kidney transplant department, urology, renal medicine, blood purification center and tissue matching laboratory. 65 In April 2001, the hospital was upgraded to the division level and became the only division level military hospital in Tianjin. 66 The director of the Nephrology department is Li Hui. 67 It has completed an average of over 200 kidney transplants per year. 68
(3) Anhui Provincial Armed Police Corps Hospital
Anhui Provincial Armed Police Corps Hospital is located in Hefei city of Anhui Province. Its predecessor was the People's Liberation Army 696 Field Hospital. The “Armed Police Force Kidney Disease Medical Specialist Center” had done over 600 cases of kidney transplants and pancreas-kidney transplants. 69
(4) Shaanxi Provincial Armed Police Corps Hospital
Shaanxi Provincial Armed Police Corps Hospital Cardiology Center was established in March 2003. It’s a partner organization of China’s Armed Police Force Heart Disease Treatment Center and Washington Hospital of Heart Disease in the U.S. 70 (WOIPFG note: The name of the hospital in the U.S. cannot be verified.) On Dec. 15, 2004, the hospital conducted its first heart transplant surgery. 71 As of June 2006, Zhang Weida, the director of surgery of the hospital, had carried out 28 cases of heart transplants, the most in the army and in the Northwest region. 72
(5) Border Defense Corps Hospital
Guangdong Public Security Border Defense Corps Hospital, also known as Shenzhen Armed Police Border Defense Hospital, 73 is the designated medical institution used by the 610 office for brainwashing purposes. Over the past year, dozens of Falun Gong practitioners went on hunger strikes to protest against the persecution. The practitioners were sent to Shenzhen Armed Police Border Defense Hospital to receive forced injections and force-feeding. 74
Between 3 p.m. of August 2 and 2 a.m. of August 3, 2004, the nephropathy center of Guangdong Border Defense Corps Hospital completed six cases of kidney transplants. The six patients came from Guangdong, Hunan and other places. 75
- 5. PLA Sequenced Hospitals
Stimulated by huge profits, PLA sequenced hospitals also have been carrying out organ transplant operations on a massive scale.
(1) PLA 205 Hospital
On May 23, 2006, Liaoxi Business Daily reported that Chen Rongshan, the urology chief physician of the PLA 205 Hospital of Jinzhou City, has in recent years completed a total of 568 cases of kidney transplants. 76
(2) PLA 302 Hospital
The PLA 302 Hospital is the infectious diseases and liver disease specialist hospital of the army. 77 On April 29, 2005, the Liver Transplant Research Center of PLA 302 Hospital completed the first liver transplant. By March 2012, the center has completed over 400 transplants. Liu Zhenwen, the director of the Ｃenter, had independently completed over 800 liver transplants before he was transferred to PLA 302 Hospital in 2005. 78
(3) Chinese Military Huazhong Kidney Transplant Center (former Urology Department of the PLA 460 Hospital)
The center’s advertisement on “China medical website”: “Chinese Military Huazhong Kidney Transplant Center homepage welcomes you to watch our video on renal transplant operation. For the convenience of our fellow compatriots from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, our center has set up a Taiwan Contact Center….Our center has completed over 100 kidney transplant surgeries each year in the past three years. Our hospital will soon start combined liver-kidney transplant operations … For more information, please visit http://www.china-kidney.com/.” 79
This was originally the website of the urology department of PLA 460 Hospital. It was later renamed to Huazhong Kidney Transplant Center website. 80
A special report on Page 12 of People's Daily on September 26, 2000 reported the story of 53-year-old Lu Fang, a private high school teacher from Taipei City. Her relative learned from news media that the PLA 460 hospital had successfully completed nearly 800 cases of kidney transplants. Upon learning this, Ms. Lu and her husband went to Zhengzhou on Sept. 3. Eight days later (Sept. 11), the urology doctors of PLA 460 Hospital spent more than 3 hours carrying out a kidney transplant operation for Lu Fang. Due to her complex conditions, the hospital prepared two kidney transplant donors for her. 81
- 6. Other PLA Medical Centers, Lacking Organ Transplant Qualifications, also Performed Large Numbers of Organ Transplants
According to Article No. 8 of the “Interim Provisions on Human Organ Transplant Clinical Application Management” announced by the Chinese Ministry of Health on March 27, 2006, medical institutions applying for organ transplant registration must be upper first-class hospitals and must have (1) professional physicians who have organ transplant clinical qualifications and technicians who can carry out organ transplants; (2) appropriate equipment and facilities for organ transplants’ clinical application; (3) an ethics committee on organ transplants; (4) adequate and complete technical standards and management systems. 82
Nonetheless, a considerable number of military hospitals (including armed police forces hospitals), started organ transplants surgeries without qualifications. The followings are some examples.
(1) PLA 181 Hospital
PLA 181 Hospital is located in downtown Guilin City. Dong Li, head of nurses of the Nephrology department published an article in 1995 entitled “Diuretic Care after Renal Transplantation.” Dong wrote in the article, “Between 1986 and 1994, 5 out of the 35 renal transplant patients that received diuretic care had super excretion.” 83 But it was not until 1996 that the PLA 181 Hospital was recognized as an upper first-class tertiary hospital. 84 Clearly, the hospital started organ transplants before it received the necessary qualifications.
(2) PLA 476 Hospital (former Fuzhou Air Force Hospital)
The PLA 476 Hospital in Fuzhou City was promoted to be an upper first-class tertiary hospital on October 17, 2010. 85 However, before that, Lin Rongxi, the chief physician of the Urology Department, had carried out renal transplantation for more than ten years. 86
(3) Armed Police Corps Hospital of Jiangxi Province
The Armed Police Corps Hospital Jiangxi Province in Nanchang City was a middle first-class general hospital. In February 2002, the hospital established a urological organ transplant center before it received organ transplant qualifications. 87 Within two years of establishment, the center performed 260 kidney transplant operations. During this period, the center had once completed four consecutive kidney transplant surgeries within eight hours. 88
(4) Shanxi Armed Police Corps General Hospital
Shanxi Armed Police Corps General Hospital is located in Taiyuan City. The hospital was promoted from middle first-class to upper first-class in 2007. 89 Between September 1999 and September 2003, before receiving organ transplant qualifications, the hospital had already completed 15 live kidney transplants. 90 As of October 2004, Shanxi Armed Police Corps General Hospital and the General Hospital of Armed Police Forces had cooperated and completed 12 liver transplants. 91
VI. “Organ Transplant” is Key to PLA Hospitals’ Modernization Strategy
- 1. The Organ Transplant Centers are Major Revenue Sources for Many PLA Hospitals
According to the profile of the PLA 309 Hospital organ transplant center, “as a major revenue center, the organ transplant center’s gross income increased from 30 million yuan in 2006 to 230 million yuan in 2010. It increased by nearly eight times in five years. The organ transplant center has an independent ward building, research labs of more than a thousand square meters and more than 140 pieces of medical and research equipment worth 26.96 million yuan. It also has 316 beds and 231 staff members.” 92
The president of PLA 463 Hospital in Shenyang Military Command, Meng Weihong said, "[We] focus on developing organ transplantation, such as liver transplants and kidney transplants. We devote financial and human resources to these areas." Within seven years, organ transplantation, cell therapy and minimally invasive treatment have become the three new pillars of the hospital. The number of allogenetic kidney transplant surgeries carried out by PLA 463 Hospital is one of the largest in Liaoning and Shenyang regions. 93
In 1991, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced guiding principles on human organ transplantation. The principles have adopted the homotopy theory point of view, and they specified that the human body and its parts cannot be the subject of commercial transactions. 94 However, the military hospitals under the Chinese communist regime have turned a deaf ear to these principles. These hospitals put price tags on illegally removed livers, kidneys, other organs, and transplant surgeries on their websites to sell to patients inside and outside China.
For example, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command was registered at the WHO as Guangzhou Liuhuaqiao Hospital. It changed its name to the current one in 1987. It indicated on its website, "The costs of kidney transplantation, including preoperative matching, surgery costs, perioperative immunosuppressive drugs, are 80,000 – 150,000 yuan.” 95 The website screen capture is shown below.
Webpage Capture 3. Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
Translation of the screen capture:
Questions regarding costs of a kidney transplant surgery
Date: May 4, 2010
Question: I want to inquire about the costs of a kidney transplant, including the kidney, surgery costs and aftercare. Thanks!
Answer: The costs of kidney transplantation, including preoperative matching, surgery costs, perioperative immunosuppressive drugs, are 80,000 to 150,000 yuan. If the transplant process is smooth, without rejection or complication, then it might be relatively cheaper; if there is complication, then it might cost more.
Table: Some Military Hospitals’ Charges for Liver and Kidney Transplant
Name of Hospital
Directly affiliated with the CMC
General Hospitals of Military Regions
Hospital Affiliated with Military Medical Universities
PLA Numbered Hospitals
PLA General Hospital
PLA 301 Hospital
As of Jan. 2005:
PLA General Staff General Hospital
PLA 309 Hospital
A kidney costs 100,000 yuan; if including surgery costs, drugs and a kidney, the total is around 200,000 yuan. 98
Navy General Hospital
Armed Police General Hospital
PLA 455 Hospital
Nanjing Military Region Kidney Specialty Center
In the first month of a kidney transplant, the material costs, surgical fees, special care charges, hospitalization, costs of laboratory test and medicines, etc. are about 60,000 yuan. For patients that require special induced immunological treatments, there will be additional charges of about 20,000 yuan. Postoperative follow-up and medication cost about 3,000 to 6,000 yuan a month 99
- 2. Armed Police Forces-Affiliated Hospitals are Major Suppliers of Donor Organs
The communist regime’s medical institution regulations’ implementation guidelines specify that the military medical institutions refer to the medical institutions within the establishments of the PLA and the Chinese People's Armed Police (organized by the troops and referred to as the People's Armed Police). 100
The armed police hospitals have ample organ donors. The below web advertisement from Beijing Armed Police General Hospital’s organ transplant institute proves this. 101
Webpage Capture 4:
Armed Police Forces General Hospital’s organ transplant center claims to have “ample donors”
Translation of the screen capture:
Organ Transplant Center has Formally Started Conventional Kidney Transplant Surgeries
Date: October 18, 2005
The People's Armed Police General Hospital’s organ transplant institute has formally established its kidney transplant expert group to perform kidney transplant surgeries. This expert group possesses advanced technical skills and ample donors. It is directed by Professor Shen Zhongyang. The surgeons have completed more than 1,000 kidney transplant surgeries. We welcome patients to come and consult with us. At the same time, we are open to online consultation prior to the kidney transplant surgeries.
In introducing their liver transplant surgeons, Armed Police General Hospital’s organ transplant center says that a number of young surgeons are very experienced in taking livers from the donors 102 and are able to complete the process of cutting and pruning the livers and removing the diseased livers. 103 On April 6, 2005, Armed Police General Hospital liver transplant center simultaneously completed five liver transplants. 104
Webpage Capture 5:
Armed Police General Hospital’s organ transplant center simultaneously completed 5 liver transplants on April 6, 2005.
Translation of the screen capture:
Armed Police General Hospital’s liver transplant surgeries broke record
Date: May 14, 2005
On April 6, 2005, under the direct instructions of President Shen Zhongyang, Armed Police General Hospital liver transplant center simultaneously completed five liver transplant surgeries. The patients’ ages range from 12 to 62. They include a Korean female national and a 12-year-old patient of Wilson’s disease. Currently, all five patients have recovered well and left the hospital. This is the largest number of liver transplants within the same day, in all of the military hospitals and in Beijing.
Webpage Capture 6: Guangdong Armed Police Corps Hospital
“Our advantages include ample source of kidney donors and high quality kidneys”
(Note: due to the widespread concerns of the international community in recent years, similar kinds of advertisements have been removed.)
Translation of the screen capture:
Introduction to Organ Transplant Center
The organ transplant center has 45 beds. It has set up a kidney transplant teaching clinic, an intensive care unit, a kidney transplant research lab and an information and material storage room. It is a major department of our hospital. We have six senior staff and renowned experts to give diagnoses. Since its establishment in 1989, the transplant center has performed kidney transplant surgeries for hundreds of domestic and foreign patients. The kidney survival rate one year after the surgery is above 90 percent. The center can independently perform kidney removal, kidney reparation and vascular anastomosis surgeries. The main specialty of the center is kidney transplantation. Our advantages include ample source of kidney donors and high quality kidneys; satisfactory HLA matching; successful surgeries; reasonable use of immunosuppressive agents; strict sterilization and quarantine system; abundant clinical experiences and high-quality aftercare.
WOIPFG note: Normally, the supply of donors and organ quality are unpredictable. However, both armed police general hospitals’ organ transplant centers have "ample donors" and "high-quality kidneys." According to statistics, since July 1999, the detention centers, labor camps and prisons in China have been detaining hundreds of thousands of Falun Gong practitioners, who are in good health. There have been Falun Gong practitioners who gave testimonials that while in custody, many Falun Gong practitioners were forced to undergo blood tests. These testing procedures are regarded as extremely suspicious, and they are possibly used to build a database for live-tissue donor matching for organ transplantation.
The independent investigation carried out by David Matas and David Kilgour has found that in order to protect their family members and avoid the hostility of their neighbors, many detained Falun Gong practitioners have refused to identify themselves. There are a large number of such Falun Gong practitioners, who have suffered particularly harsh treatment. At the same time, they have been transferred within China’s prison system, without being informed of the reasons. The investigators believe that these people are more likely to become donors for organ transplantation. (Bloody Harvest)
In mainland China, the security, investigation and legal systems are all controlled by the Political & Legislative Affairs Committee. 105 The armed police is responsible for monitoring the prisons. The law enforcement in prisons is directly connected to the security and legal systems and the armed police. Given the special status of the armed police and their hospitals, it implies that the armed police hospitals have an unusual relationship with a giant "live organ bank," which is unknown to the outside world.
3. Illicit Revenue From Organ Harvesting Used to Upgrade Hospital Facilities
A considerable number of military hospitals to have carried out facility upgrades after performing organ transplants, for example:
(1) PLA 181 Hospital, located in downtown Guilin City
The Journal of Chinese Physician published an article in July 2003, which was titled “Treatment of Impaired Liver Functions after Kidney Transplant Surgeries.” 106 The article mentioned that from April 1986 to January 2001, PLA 181 Central Hospital, which is located in the center of Guilin, performed 334 allogenetic kidney transplant surgeries. Out of the 334 cases, 82 patients suffered liver dysfunction, including 54 males and 28 females. The age range of these patients was 9 to 65. 107
In 1996, PLA 181 Hospital was granted the status of “Third Grade A Type Hospital” 108 by its superior. In 2006, PLA General Logistics Health Department approved this hospital’s kidney department to found “the military kidney transplant and dialysis treatment center,” 109 while being “Guangzhou Military Region Kidney Disease Research Institute and Guangzhou Military Region Organ Transplant Center.” 110
(2) PLA 460 Hospital
Prior to September 2000, PLA 460 Hospital has performed nearly 800 cases of kidney transplant surgeries. In 2004, PLA 460 Hospital merged with the PLA 153 Hospital. 111
(3) Second Military Medical University Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Organ Transplant Center
This hospital started performing kidney transplant surgeries and dialysis in its Department of Urology in June 1978. On August 12, 1988, the hospital’s communist party committee decided to set up a kidney transplantation and blood purification center, which consisted of two specialties, including kidney transplantation and kidney dialysis. On March 21, 1989, the center was formally established. Since May 1996, the general surgery department started to carry out liver transplant surgeries, and it developed rapidly. In early 2003, the hospital’s party committee decided to combine the kidney transplant group in the Department of Urology and the liver transplant group of the General Surgery Department to form an Organ Transplant Center and to found an Organ Transplant Department. On December 17 of the same year, the People's Liberation Army General Logistics Department approved the hospital to become the Chinese People's Liberation Army Organ Transplantation Research Institute. By the end of 2005, this hospital had completed 3,081 kidney transplants and more than 460 liver transplants. It had set up 67 beds and recruited 52 staff members, including six senior staff. The institute had also set up six laboratories. 112
On August 24, 2007, the Ministry of Health announced the first group of hospitals to receive approval to carry out organ transplantation projects. Among the 89 hospitals, 27 were military hospitals (30%). Among the 95 hospitals designated to carry out human organ transplants, there were 23 military hospitals. (See reference 38)
The first group of military hospitals that were approved to carry out organ transplant operations:
General Hospital of ShenYang Military Command – kidney transplants
Second Military Medical University Affiliated Changzheng Hospital – liver / kidney transplants
Second Military Medical University Affiliated Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital – liver transplants
Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command – kidney transplants
Hangzhou PLA 117 Hospital – kidney transplants
Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command – liver / kidney transplants
PLA 180 Hospital – liver transplants
Jinan Military Region General Hospital – kidney transplants
Jinan Military Region 153 Hospital – kidney transplants
Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command – kidney transplants
Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command – kidney transplants
PLA 181 Hospital – kidney transplants
PLA 303 Hospital – kidney transplants
Chongqing Third Military Medical University Affiliated Southwest Hospital – liver / kidney transplants
Chongqing Third Military Medical University Affiliated Xinqiao Hospital – kidney transplants
Chongqing Third Military Medical University Affiliated Daping Hospital – kidney transplants
Chengdu Military Region General Hospital – kidney transplants
PLA 452 Hospital – kidney transplants
Fourth Military Medical University Affiliated Xijing Hospital – liver / heart transplants
Armed Police Corps Hospital of Shaanxi Province – kidney transplants
List of hospitals designated to perform human organ transplants:
PLA General Hospital (including the Clinical Division) – heart / lung transplants
General Hospital of Beijing Military Command – liver / kidney transplants
Navy General Hospital – liver transplants
PLA 302 Hospital – liver transplants
Second Artillery General Hospital – liver transplants
PLA 307 Hospital – kidney transplants
Armed Police Tianjin Medical College Affiliated Hospital – kidney transplants
PLA 281 Hospital (Hebei) – kidney transplants
General Hospital of ShenYang Military Command – heart / lung transplants
PLA 463 Hospital – liver transplants
Second Military Medical University Affiliated Changhai Hospital – heart / kidney transplants
PLA 81 Hospital – liver transplants
Jinan Military Region General Hospital– liver transplant
PLA 401 Hospital – liver / kidney transplants
PLA 161 Hospital – kidney transplants
Guangzhou General Hospital of the Guangzhou Military Command – heart / liver transplants
PLA 458 Hospital – liver / kidney transplants
PLA No. 303 Hospital – liver transplants
Third Military Medical University Affiliated Southwest Hospital – heart transplants
Chengdu Military Region Kunming General Hospital – liver transplants
Fourth Military Medical University Affiliated Xijing Hospital – lung / kidney transplants
Lanzhou Military Region Lanzhou General Hospital – kidney transplants
PLA 474 Hospital – kidney transplants
Three out of the 11 hospitals approved to perform human organ transplants in Shanghai: 113
Second Military Medical University Affiliated Changzheng Hospital – liver / kidney transplants
Second Military Medical University Affiliated Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital – liver transplants
Second Military Medical University Affiliated Changhai Hospital – kidney transplants
The First Group of Military Hospitals Approved to Perform Human Organ Transplants in Beijing and Shanghai: 114
PLA General Hospital (including the Clinical Division) – liver / kidney transplants
Armed Police General Hospital – liver / kidney transplants
Air Force General Hospital – kidney transplants
Armed Police Shanxi Corps Hospital – kidney transplants
This report presents strong evidence of Jiang Zemin’s genocide policy against Falun Gong practitioners.
The CCP’s PLA hospitals have been conducting an extraordinary amount of organ transplants. Some of the organ transplant centers have performed thousands of organ transplant operations in a few short years. CMC-affiliated hospitals, hospitals affiliated with all seven military regions, and hospitals affiliated with military medical universities have, without exception, performed organ transplant operations. Many PLA sequenced hospitals and armed police clinics, which lack the technology and facility for organ transplant, have also performed large amount of operations.
The unusual wait time for a transplant operation implies that military hospitals have access to a large potential donor pool. For example, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital affiliated with the Second Military Medical University advertised a one week wait time for a liver transplant.
The armed police forces hospitals advertised ample organ supplies. The organ supplies come from Falun Gong practitioners in detention centers, labor camps and jails, which are directly accessible by the armed police forces hospitals. Because of the autonomous nature of the military system, the live organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners is a black box operation from beginning to end. What this report touches upon is only the tip of the iceberg.
Chinese military hospitals have benefited from the illicit profits of the organ harvesting. Some of the hospitals have been able to purchase new equipment and be upgraded. 115 In the meantime, individuals have become rich through organ harvesting. This has greatly stimulated military hospitals to participate in the crime.
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